Xiaohua Liu


1 On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation

Authors: Xiaohua Liu, Juan F. Beltran, Nishant Mohanchandra, Godfried T. Toussaint


Support vector machines (SVMs) are considered to be the best machine learning algorithms for minimizing the predictive probability of misclassification. However, their drawback is that for large data sets the computation of the optimal decision boundary is a time consuming function of the size of the training set. Hence several methods have been proposed to speed up the SVM algorithm. Here three methods used to speed up the computation of the SVM classifiers are compared experimentally using a musical genre classification problem. The simplest method pre-selects a random sample of the data before the application of the SVM algorithm. Two additional methods use proximity graphs to pre-select data that are near the decision boundary. One uses k-Nearest Neighbor graphs and the other Relative Neighborhood Graphs to accomplish the task.

Keywords: Data Mining, Machine Learning, Support Vector Machines, random sampling, proximity graphs, relative-neighborhood graphs, k-nearestneighbor graphs, training data condensation

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1 Si Doped HfO₂ Anti-Ferroelectric Thin Films for Energy Storage and Solid State Cooling Applications

Authors: Xiaohua Liu, Faizan Ali, Dayu Zhou, Tony Schenk, Johannes Muller, Uwe Schroeder


Recently, the ferroelectricity (FE) and anti-ferroelectricity (AFE) introduced in so-called 'high-k dielectric' HfO₂ material incorporated with various dopants (Si, Gd, Y, Sr, Gd, Al, and La, etc.), HfO₂-ZrO₂ solid-solution, Al or Si-doped Hf₀.₅Zr₀.₅O₂ and even undoped HfO₂ thin films. The origin of FE property was attributed to the formation of a non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic (o) phase of space group Pbc2₁. To the author’s best knowledge, AFE property was observed only in HfO₂ doped with a certain amount of Si, Al, HfₓZr₁₋ₓO₂ (0 ≤ x < 0.5), and in Si or Al-doped Hf₀.₅Zr₀.₅O₂. The origin of the anti-ferroelectric behavior is an electric field induced phase transition between the non-polar tetragonal (t) and the polar ferroelectric orthorhombic (o) phase. Compared with the significant amount of studies for the FE properties in the context of non-volatile memories, AFE properties of HfO₂-based and HfₓZr₁₋ₓO₂ (HZO) thin films have just received attention recently for energy-related applications such as electrocaloric cooling, pyroelectric energy harvesting, and electrostatic energy storage. In this work, energy storage and solid state cooling properties of Si-doped HfO₂ AFE thin films are investigated. Owing to the high field-induced polarization and slim double hysteresis, an extremely large Energy storage density (ESD) value of 61.2 J cm⁻³ is achieved at 4.5 MV cm⁻¹ with high efficiency of ~65%. In addition, the ESD and efficiency exhibit robust thermal stability in 210-400 K temperature range and excellent endurance up to 10⁹ times of charge/discharge cycling at a very high electric field of 4.0 MV cm⁻¹. Similarly, for solid-state cooling, the maximum adiabatic temperature change (

Keywords: energy storage, Endurance, Thin Films, solid state cooling, anti-ferroelectric

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