Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shatirah Akib

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University: Heriot-Watt University
Department: Department of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society
Research Fields: Civil Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydraulic Structure Engineering, Coastal Engineering, Water Resources, Hydrology, Ground Water Engineering, Hydropower, Climate Change, Sustainability, Renewable Energy and Physical Modeling

Publications

7 Sustainability Analysis and Quality Assessment of Rainwater Harvested from Green Roofs: A Review

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Mst. Nilufa Sultana, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Most people today are aware that global climate change is not just a scientific theory but also a fact with worldwide consequences. Global climate change is due to rapid urbanization, industrialization, high population growth and current vulnerability of the climatic condition. Water is becoming scarce as a result of global climate change. To mitigate the problem arising due to global climate change and its drought effect, harvesting rainwater from green roofs, an environmentally-friendly and versatile technology, is becoming one of the best assessment criteria and gaining attention in Malaysia. This paper addresses the sustainability of green roofs and examines the quality of water harvested from green roofs in comparison to rainwater. The factors that affect the quality of such water, taking into account, for example, roofing materials, climatic conditions, the frequency of rainfall frequency and the first flush. A green roof was installed on the Humid Tropic Centre (HTC) is a place of the study on monitoring program for urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA), Eco-Hydrological Project in Kuala Lumpur, and the rainwater was harvested and evaluated on the basis of four parameters i.e., conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature. These parameters were found to fall between Class I and Class III of the Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) and the Water Quality Index (WQI). Some preliminary treatment such as disinfection and filtration could likely to improve the value of these parameters to class I. This review paper clearly indicates that there is a need for more research to address other microbiological and chemical quality parameters to ensure that the harvested water is suitable for use potable water for domestic purposes. The change in all physical, chemical and microbiological parameters with respect to storage time will be a major focus of future studies in this field.

Keywords: Green roofs, INWQS, MSMA-SME, Rainwater harvesting

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6 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, scour, bridge pier, SSIIM 2.0

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5 Performance of Bridge Girder with Perforations under Tsunami Wave Loading

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Sadia Rahman, M. T. R. Khan, R. Triatmadja

Abstract:

Tsunami disaster poses a great threat to coastal infrastructures. Bridges without adequate provisions for earthquake and tsunami loading is generally vulnerable to tsunami attack. During the last two disastrous tsunami event (i.e. Indian Ocean and Japan Tsunami) a number of bridges were observed subsequent damages by tsunami waves. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of perforations in bridge girder in force reduction. Results showed that significant amount of forces were reduced using perforations in girder. Approximately 10% to 18% force reductions were achieved by using about 16% perforations in bridge girder. Subsequent amount of force reductions revealed that perforations in girder are effective in reducing tsunami forces as perforations in girder let water to be passed through. Thus, less bridge damages are expected with the presence of perforations in girder during tsunami period.

Keywords: Tsunami, Bridge, wave, Force, perforation, girder

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4 Time Development of Local Scour around Semi Integral Bridge Piers and Piles in Malaysia

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Sadia Rahman

Abstract:

Scouring around a bridge pier is a complex phenomenon. More laboratory experiments are required to understand the scour mechanism. This paper focused on time development of local scour around piers and piles in semi integral bridges. Laboratory data collected at Hydraulics Laboratory, University of Malaya was analyzed for this purpose. Tests were performed with two different uniform sediment sizes and five ranges of flow velocities. Fine and coarse sediments were tested in the flume. Results showed that scour depths for both pier and piles increased with time up to certain levels and after that they became almost constant. It had been found that scour depths increased when discharges increased. Coarser sediment also produced lesser scouring at the piers and combined piles.

Keywords: Time, scour, pier, pile, semi integral bridge

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3 Optimal Water Allocation: Sustainable Management of Dam Reservoir

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Sadia Rahman, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Babak Kamali

Abstract:

Scarcity of water resources and huge costs of establishing new hydraulic installations necessitate optimal exploitation from existing reservoirs. Sustainable management and efficient exploitation from existing finite water resources are important factors in water resource management, particularly in the periods of water insufficiency and in dry regions, and on account of competitive allocations in the view of exploitation management. This study aims to minimize reservoir water release from a determined rate of demand. A numerical model for water optimal exploitation has been developed using GAMS introduced by the World Bank and applied to the case of Meijaran dam, northern Iran. The results indicate that this model can optimize the function of reservoir exploitation while required water for lower parts of the region will be supplied. Further, allocating optimal water from reservoir, the optimal rate of water allocated to any group of the users were specified to increase benefits in curve dam exploitation.

Keywords: water resource management, Water Reservoirs, GAMS, water allocation, Meijaran dam

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2 Masouleh: A City; A History

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Mahshid Kakouei, Mina Kakouei, Kumaran Suberamanian, Sabzali Musa Kahn

Abstract:

Human always tried to create a suitable situation for their life according to environmental conditions. In fact, geography has an important role in the shape of our living area. Iran also as a four-season country has different climate type: hot and humid, hot and dry, mid and humid, and cold; therefore, we can find different architecture styles in Iran. Gilan-s traditional architecture is a suitable sample of sustainable construction in Iran. Because the main factors of every dwelling are the climatic, social, economic and cultural effects which demonstrate the interaction between environment and people settlement. This paper was determined the interaction between environmental factors and the rural dwellings in the Gilan province. Also, traditional village (city) of Masouleh as a rare sample of rural and sustainable architecture was introduced.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Vernacular Materials, Traditional Architecture, Masouleh

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1 Review of Scouring on Integral Bridge and its Possible Protection

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Budhi Primasari, Teuku K. Syamsura, S.M. Shirazi, Moatasem M. Fayyadh

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the following protection of scouring countermeasures by using Bentonite-Enhanced Sand (BES) mixtures. The concept of underground improvement is being used in this study to reduce the void of the sand. The sand bentonite mixture was used to bond the ground soil conditions surrounding the pile of integral bridge. The right composition of sand bentonite mixture was proposed based on previous findings. The swelling effect of bentonite also was investigated to ensure there is no adverse impact to the structure of the integral bridge. ScourScour, another name for severe erosion, occurs when the erosive capacity of water resulting from natural and manmade events exceeds the ability of earth materials to resist its effects. According to AASHTO LRFD Specifications (Section C3.7.5), scour is the most common reason for the collapse of highway bridges in the United States

Keywords: bentonite, Scouring, integral bridge, possible protection

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Abstracts

6 [Keynote Talk]: Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation Approach for Characterizing Performance of Surface Wave

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan

Abstract:

Boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy and chemical energy are covered and possessed by oceans. The hybrid system helps in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The objective and concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper reviews applications of using hybrid power generation system for remote area. It also highlights the future directions to investigate the impacts of surface waves on turbine design and performance. The importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions could also been explored.

Keywords: Hybrid, Marine Current Energy, wave turbine, tidal turbine

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5 The Effect of Surface Wave on the Performance Characteristic of a Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation System

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan

Abstract:

More than 70% of the Earth is covered by oceans, which are considered to possess boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy, and chemical energy. The hybrid system help in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper propose a hybrid power generation system suitable for remote area application and highlight the impact of surface waves on turbine design and performance, and the importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Marine Current Energy, tidal turbines, wave turbine, surface waves, hydraulic flume experiments, instantaneous wave phase

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4 Scouring Rate Pattern/Monitoring at Coastal and Offshore Structures

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Ahmad Saifullah Mazlan

Abstract:

Scouring pattern evaluation and measuring its depth around coastal and offshore structures is very essential issue to assure the safety of the structures as well as providing needed design parameters. Scouring is known as one of the important phenomena which threatens the safety of infrastructures. Several countermeasures have been developed to control scouring by protecting the structures against water flow attack directly or indirectly by changing the water flow pattern. Recently, monitoring methods for estimating water flow pattern and scour depth are studied to track the safety of structures. Since most of studies regarding scouring is related to monitoring scouring around piers in rivers therefore it is necessary to develop researches investigating scouring around piers in coastal and offshore areas. This paper describes a review of monitoring methods may be used for detecting scour depth around piers in coastal and offshore structures.

Keywords: Coastal, monitoring, Offshore, scour, pier

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3 Sustainability Analysis and Quality Assessment of Rainwater Harvested from Green Roofs: A Review

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Mst. Nilufa Sultana, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Most people today are aware that global Climate change, is not just a scientific theory but also a fact with worldwide consequences. Global climate change is due to rapid urbanization, industrialization, high population growth and current vulnerability of the climatic condition. Water is becoming scarce as a result of global climate change. To mitigate the problem arising due to global climate change and its drought effect, harvesting rainwater from green roofs, an environmentally-friendly and versatile technology, is becoming one of the best assessment criteria and gaining attention in Malaysia. This paper addresses the sustainability of green roofs and examines the quality of water harvested from green roofs in comparison to rainwater. The factors that affect the quality of such water, taking into account, for example, roofing materials, climatic conditions, the frequency of rainfall frequency and the first flush. A green roof was installed on the Humid Tropic Centre (HTC) is a place of the study on monitoring program for urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA), Eco-Hydrological Project in Kualalumpur, and the rainwater was harvested and evaluated on the basis of four parameters i.e., conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature. These parameters were found to fall between Class I and Class III of the Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) and the Water Quality Index (WQI). Some preliminary treatment such as disinfection and filtration could likely to improve the value of these parameters to class I. This review paper clearly indicates that there is a need for more research to address other microbiological and chemical quality parameters to ensure that the harvested water is suitable for use potable water for domestic purposes. The change in all physical, chemical and microbiological parameters with respect to storage time will be a major focus of future studies in this field.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Green roofs, Rainwater Harvesting, INWQS, MSMA-SME, water quality parameter, WQI

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2 Effects of Coastal Structure Construction on Ecosystem

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Hossein Basser, Keyvan Kimiaei

Abstract:

Coastal defense structures were built to protect part of shore from beach erosion and flooding by sea water. Effects of coastal defense structures can be negative or positive. Some of the effects are beneficial in socioeconomic aspect, but environment matters should be given more concerns because it can bring bad consequences to the earth landscape and make the ecosystem be unbalanced. This study concerns on the negative impacts as they are dominant. Coastal structures can extremely impact the shoreline configuration. Artificial structures can influence sediment transport, split the coastal space, etc. This can result in habitats loss and lead to noise and visual disturbance of birds. There are two types of coastal defense structures, hard coastal structure and soft coastal structure. Both coastal structures have their own impacts. The impacts are induced during the construction, maintaining, and operation of the structures.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Environmental Impact, hard coastal structures, soft coastal structures

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1 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, scour, bridge pier, SSIIM 2.0

Procedia PDF Downloads 159