Prof. Dr. Ram Mohan

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering
University: North Carolina A&T State University
Department: Nanoengineering
Research Fields: cement composite, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics, plasticizer additives,

Publications

1 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors - external magnetic field and applied current density during template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, anodic alumina oxide

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Abstracts

5 Scale-Up Study of Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in Downcomer

Authors: Ram Mohan, Ramin Dabirian, Ilias Gavrielatos, Ovadia Shoham, Jayanth Abishek Subramanian

Abstract:

Downcomers are important conduits for multiphase flow transfer from offshore platforms to the seabed. Uncertainty in the predictions of the pressure drop of multiphase flow between platforms is often dominated by the uncertainty associated with the prediction of holdup and pressure drop in the downcomer. The objectives of this study are to conduct experimental and theoretical scale-up study of the downcomer. A 4-in. diameter vertical test section was designed and constructed to study two-phase flow in downcomer. The facility is equipped with baffles for flow area restriction, enabling interchangeable annular slot openings between 30% and 61.7%. Also, state-of-the-art instrumentation, the capacitance Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) was utilized to acquire the experimental data. A total of 76 experimental data points were acquired, including falling film under 30% and 61.7% annular slot opening for air-water and air-Conosol C200 oil cases as well as gas carry-under for 30% and 61.7% opening utilizing air-Conosol C200 oil. For all experiments, the parameters such as falling film thickness and velocity, entrained liquid holdup in the core, gas void fraction profiles at the cross-sectional area of the liquid column, the void fraction and the gas carry under were measured. The experimental results indicated that the film thickness and film velocity increase as the flow area reduces. Also, the increase in film velocity increases the gas entrainment process. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the increase of gas entrainment for the same liquid flow rate leads to an increase in the gas carry-under. A power comparison method was developed to enable evaluation of the Lopez (2011) model, which was created for full bore downcomer, with the novel scale-up experiment data acquired from the downcomer with the restricted area for flow. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions shows a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.9% and 21.8% for the falling film thickness and velocity, respectively; and a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.2% for fraction of gas carried with the liquid (oil).

Keywords: two phase flow, falling film, downcomer, wire-mesh sensor

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4 The Effects of Water Fraction and Salinity on Crude Oil-Water Dispersions

Authors: Ram Mohan, Yi Zhang, Ramin Dabirian, Ilias Gavrielatos, Ovadia Shoham

Abstract:

Oil-water emulsions can be found in almost every part of the petroleum industry, namely in reservoir rocks, drilling cuttings circulation, production in wells, transportation pipelines, surface facilities and refining process. However, it is necessary for oil production and refinery engineers to resolve the petroleum emulsion problems as well as to eliminate the contaminants in order to meet environmental standards, achieve the desired product quality and to improve equipment reliability and efficiency. A state-of-art Dispersion Characterization Rig (DCR) has been utilized to investigate crude oil-distilled water dispersion separation. Over 80 experimental tests were ran to investigate the flow behavior and stability of the dispersions. The experimental conditions include the effects of water cuts (25%, 50% and 75%), NaCl concentrations (0, 3.5% and 18%), mixture flow velocities (0.89 and 1.71 ft/s), and also orifice place types on the separation rate. The experimental data demonstrate that the water cut can significantly affects the separation time and efficiency. The dispersion with lower water cut takes longer time to separate and have low separation efficiency. The medium and lower water cuts will result in the formation of Mousse emulsion and the phase inversion happens around the medium water cut. The data also confirm that increasing the NaCl concentration in aqueous phase can increase the crude oil water dispersion separation efficiency especially at higher salinities. The separation profile for dispersions with lower salt concentrations has a lower sedimentation rate slope before the inflection point. Dispersions in all tests with higher salt concentrations have a larger sedimenting rate. The presence of NaCl can influence the interfacial tension gradients along the interface and it plays a role in avoiding the Mousse emulsion formation.

Keywords: phase inversion, oil-water dispersion, separation mechanism, emulsion formation

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3 Experimental Uniaxial Tensile Characterization of One-Dimensional Nickel Nanowires

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

Metallic nanowires with sub-micron and hundreds of nanometer diameter have a diversity of applications in nano/micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS). Characterizing the mechanical properties of such sub-micron and nano-scale metallic nanowires are tedious; require sophisticated and careful experimentation to be performed within high-powered microscopy systems (scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM)). Also, needed are nanoscale devices for placing the nanowires; loading them with the intended conditions; obtaining the data for load–deflection during the deformation within the high-powered microscopy environment poses significant challenges. Even picking the grown nanowires and placing them correctly within a nanoscale loading device is not an easy task. Mechanical characterizations through experimental methods for such nanowires are still very limited. Various techniques at different levels of fidelity, resolution, and induced errors have been attempted by material science and nanomaterial researchers. The methods for determining the load, deflection within the nanoscale devices also pose a significant problem. The state of the art is thus still at its infancy. All these factors result and is seen in the wide differences in the characterization curves and the reported properties in the current literature. In this paper, we discuss and present our experimental method, results, and discussions of uniaxial tensile loading and the development of subsequent stress–strain characteristics curves for Nickel nanowires. Nickel nanowires in the diameter range of 220–270 nm were obtained in our laboratory via an electrodeposition method, which is a solution based, template method followed in our present work for growing 1-D Nickel nanowires. Process variables such as the presence of magnetic field, its intensity; and varying electrical current density during the electrodeposition process were found to influence the morphological and physical characteristics including crystal orientation, size of the grown nanowires1. To further understand the correlation and influence of electrodeposition process variables, associated formed structural features of our grown Nickel nanowires to their mechanical properties, careful experiments within scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted. Details of the uniaxial tensile characterization, testing methodology, nanoscale testing device, load–deflection characteristics, microscopy images of failure progression, and the subsequent stress–strain curves are discussed and presented.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, stress-strain, uniaxial tensile characterization

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2 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, anodic alumina oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1 Architecture - Performance Relationship in GPU Computing - Composite Process Flow Modeling and Simulations

Authors: Ram Mohan, Ajit Kelkar, Richard Haney

Abstract:

Current developments in computing have shown the advantage of using one or more Graphic Processing Units (GPU) to boost the performance of many computationally intensive applications but there are still limits to these GPU-enhanced systems. The major factors that contribute to the limitations of GPU(s) for High Performance Computing (HPC) can be categorized as hardware and software oriented in nature. Understanding how these factors affect performance is essential to develop efficient and robust applications codes that employ one or more GPU devices as powerful co-processors for HPC computational modeling. This research and technical presentation will focus on the analysis and understanding of the intrinsic interrelationship of both hardware and software categories on computational performance for single and multiple GPU-enhanced systems using a computationally intensive application that is representative of a large portion of challenges confronting modern HPC. The representative application uses unstructured finite element computations for transient composite resin infusion process flow modeling as the computational core, characteristics and results of which reflect many other HPC applications via the sparse matrix system used for the solution of linear system of equations. This work describes these various software and hardware factors and how they interact to affect performance of computationally intensive applications enabling more efficient development and porting of High Performance Computing applications that includes current, legacy, and future large scale computational modeling applications in various engineering and scientific disciplines.

Keywords: Performance Analysis, graphical processing unit, software development and engineering, system architecture and software performance

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