Dr. Praveen Kumar

University: ccs University meerut up
Department: Department of Mathematics
Research Fields: Fuzzy mathematics Optimization

Publications

3 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Rheology, CFD, viscosity, crude oil, natural surfactant

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2 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Hemant Kumar, Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, erosion, k-ε model, slurry transportation

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1 Preparation of Nanostructure ZnO-SnO2 Thin Films for Optoelectronic Properties and Post Annealing Influence

Authors: Praveen Kumar, VIPIN KUMAR JAIN, Y.K. Vijay

Abstract:

ZnO-SnO2 i.e. Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO2 - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO film were annealed at 450 0C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing on the structural, electrical, and optical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The apparent growth of surface features revealed the formation of nanostructure ZTO thin films. The small value of surface roughness (root mean square RRMS) ensures the usefulness in optical coatings. The sheet resistance was also found to be decreased for both types of films with increasing concentration of SnO2. The optical transmittance found to be decreased however blue shift has been observed after annealing.

Keywords: SEM, AFM, sheet resistance, ZTO thin film, Optical transmittance

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Abstracts

5 Observation of Inverse Blech Length Effect during Electromigration of Cu Thin Film

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Nalla Somaiah

Abstract:

Scaling of transistors and, hence, interconnects is very important for the enhanced performance of microelectronic devices. Scaling of devices creates significant complexity, especially in the multilevel interconnect architectures, wherein current crowding occurs at the corners of interconnects. Such a current crowding creates hot-spots at the respective corners, resulting in non-uniform temperature distribution in the interconnect as well. This non-uniform temperature distribution, which is exuberated with continued scaling of devices, creates a temperature gradient in the interconnect. In particular, the increased current density at corners and the associated temperature rise due to Joule heating accelerate the electromigration induced failures in interconnects, especially at corners. This has been the classic reliability issue associated with metallic interconnects. Herein, it is generally understood that electromigration induced damages can be avoided if the length of interconnect is smaller than a critical length, often termed as Blech length. Interestingly, the effect of non-negligible temperature gradients generated at these corners in terms of thermomigration and electromigration-thermomigration coupling has not attracted enough attention. Accordingly, in this work, the interplay between the electromigration and temperature gradient induced mass transport was studied using standard Blech structure. In this particular sample structure, the majority of the current is forcefully directed into the low resistivity metallic film from a high resistivity underlayer film, resulting in current crowding at the edges of the metallic film. In this study, 150 nm thick Cu metallic film was deposited on 30 nm thick W underlayer film in the configuration of Blech structure. Series of Cu thin strips, with lengths of 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μm, were fabricated. Current density of ≈ 4 × 1010 A/m² was passed through Cu and W films at a temperature of 250ºC. Herein, along with expected forward migration of Cu atoms from the cathode to the anode at the cathode end of the Cu film, backward migration from the anode towards the center of Cu film was also observed. Interestingly, smaller length samples consistently showed enhanced migration at the cathode end, thus indicating the existence of inverse Blech length effect in presence of temperature gradient. A finite element based model showing the interplay between electromigration and thermomigration driving forces has been developed to explain this observation.

Keywords: Thin Films, electromigration, temperature gradient, Blech structure

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4 Investigation of the Growth Kinetics of Phases in Ni–Sn System

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Varun A Baheti, Sanjay Kashyap, Aloke Paul

Abstract:

Ni–Sn system finds applications in the microelectronics industry, especially with respect to flip–chip or direct chip, attach technology. Here the region of interest is under bump metallization (UBM), and solder bump (Sn) interface due to the formation of brittle intermetallic phases there. Understanding the growth of these phases at UBM/Sn interface is important, as in many cases it controls the electro–mechanical properties of the product. Cu and Ni are the commonly used UBM materials. Cu is used for good bonding because of fast reaction with solder and Ni often acts as a diffusion barrier layer due to its inherently slower reaction kinetics with Sn–based solders. Investigation on the growth kinetics of phases in Ni–Sn system is reported in this study. Just for simplicity, Sn being major solder constituent is chosen. Ni–Sn electroplated diffusion couples are prepared by electroplating pure Sn on Ni substrate. Bulk diffusion couples prepared by the conventional method are also studied along with Ni–Sn electroplated diffusion couples. Diffusion couples are annealed for 25–1000 h at 50–215°C to study the phase evolutions and growth kinetics of various phases. The interdiffusion zone was analysed using field emission gun equipped scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) for imaging. Indexing of selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns obtained from transmission electron microscope (TEM) and composition measurements done in electron probe micro−analyser (FE–EPMA) confirms the presence of various product phases grown across the interdiffusion zone. Time-dependent experiments indicate diffusion controlled growth of the product phase. The estimated activation energy in the temperature range 125–215°C for parabolic growth constants (and hence integrated interdiffusion coefficients) of the Ni₃Sn₄ phase shed light on the growth mechanism of the phase; whether its grain boundary controlled or lattice controlled diffusion. The location of the Kirkendall marker plane indicates that the Ni₃Sn₄ phase grows mainly by diffusion of Sn in the binary Ni–Sn system.

Keywords: diffusion, equilibrium phase, metastable phase, the Ni-Sn system

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3 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Hemant Kumar, Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.

Keywords: erosion, k-ε model, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), slurry transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Rheology, natural, CFD, viscosity, surfactant, crude oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1 Improving Equipment Life and Overall Equipment Effectiveness (O.E.E.) through Proper Maintenance Strategy Using Value Engineering

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Malay Niraj

Abstract:

The present study is a new approach for improving equipment life and Overall Equipment Efficiency (O.E.E.) through suitable maintenance practice with the help of value engineering. Value engineering is a one of the most powerful decision-making techniques which depend on many factors. The improvements are the result of recommendations made by multidisciplinary teams representing all parties involved. VE is a rigorous, systematic effort to improve the OEE and optimize the life cycle cost of a facility. The study describes problems in maintenance arising due to the absence of having clear criteria and strong decision constrain how to maintain failing equipment. Using factor comparisons, the study has been made between different maintenance practices and finally best maintenance practice based on value engineering technique has been selected.

Keywords: Decision-making, maintenance strategy, Value Engineering, overall equipment efficiency

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