Dr. Andrea Schiffauerova

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Computer and Information Engineering
University: Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
Department: Department of Systems Engineering and Management
Research Fields: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, productivity,

Publications

2 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding, Gender Differences, research output

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1 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: Productivity, Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding

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Abstracts

5 The Nature and the Structure of Scientific and Innovative Collaboration Networks

Authors: Andrea Schiffauerova, Afshin Moazami

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to investigate the development and the role of collaboration networks in the creation of knowledge and innovations in the US and Canada, with a special focus on Quebec. In order to create scientific networks, the data on journal articles were extracted from SCOPUS, and the networks were built based on the co-authorship of the journal papers. For innovation networks, the USPTO database was used, and the networks were built on the patent co-inventorship. Various indicators characterizing the evolution of the network structure and the positions of the researchers and inventors in the networks were calculated. The comparison between the United States, Canada, and Quebec was then carried out. The preliminary results show that the nature of scientific collaboration networks differs from the one seen in innovation networks. Scientists work in bigger teams and are mostly interconnected within one giant network component, whereas the innovation network is much more clustered and fragmented, the inventors work more repetitively with the same partners, often in smaller isolated groups. In both Canada and the US, an increasing tendency towards collaboration was observed, and it was found that networks are getting bigger and more centralized with time. Moreover, a declining share of knowledge transfers per scientist was detected, suggesting an increasing specialization of science. The US collaboration networks tend to be more centralized than the Canadian ones. Quebec shares a lot of features with the Canadian network, but some differences were observed, for example, Quebec inventors rely more on the knowledge transmission through intermediaries.

Keywords: Collaboration, Canada, United States, innovation network, scientific network, Quebec

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
4 Analyzing Industry-University Collaboration Using Complex Networks and Game Theory

Authors: Andrea Schiffauerova, Elnaz Kanani-Kuchesfehani

Abstract:

Due to the novelty of the nanotechnology science, its highly knowledge intensive content, and its invaluable application in almost all technological fields, the close interaction between university and industry is essential. A possible gap between academic strengths to generate good nanotechnology ideas and industrial capacity to receive them can thus have far-reaching consequences. In order to be able to enhance the collaboration between the two parties, a better understanding of knowledge transfer within the university-industry relationship is needed. The objective of this research is to investigate the research collaboration between academia and industry in Canadian nanotechnology and to propose the best cooperative strategy to maximize the quality of the produced knowledge. First, a network of all Canadian academic and industrial nanotechnology inventors is constructed using the patent data from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), and it is analyzed with social network analysis software. The actual level of university-industry collaboration in Canadian nanotechnology is determined and the significance of each group of actors in the network (academic vs. industrial inventors) is assessed. Second, a novel methodology is proposed, in which the network of nanotechnology inventors is assessed from a game theoretic perspective. It involves studying a cooperative game with n players each having at most n-1 decisions to choose from. The equilibrium leads to a strategy for all the players to choose their co-worker in the next period in order to maximize the correlated payoff of the game. The payoffs of the game represent the quality of the produced knowledge based on the citations of the patents. The best suggestion for the next collaborative relationship is provided for each actor from a game theoretic point of view in order to maximize the quality of the produced knowledge. One of the major contributions of this work is the novel approach which combines game theory and social network analysis for the case of large networks. This approach can serve as a powerful tool in the analysis of the strategic interactions of the network actors within the innovation systems and other large scale networks.

Keywords: Game theory, Social Network Analysis, cooperative strategy, knowledge production, industry-university collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
3 Framework for the Assessment of National Systems of Innovation in Biotechnology

Authors: Andrea Schiffauerova, Amnah Alzeyoudi

Abstract:

This paper studies patterns of innovation within national constitutional context. Its objective is to examine national systems of innovation in biotechnology in six leading innovative countries: the US, Japan, Germany, the UK, France and Canada. The framework proposed for this purpose consists of specific factors considered critical for the development of national systems of innovation, which are industry size, innovative activities, area of specialization, industry structure, national policy, the level of government intervention, the stock of knowledge in universities and industries, knowledge transfer from universities to industry and country-specific conditions for start-ups. The paper then uses the framework to provide detailed cross-country comparisons while highlighting particular features of national institutional context which affect the creation and diffusion of scientific knowledge within the system. The study is primarily based on the extensive survey of literature and it is complemented by the quantitative analysis of the patent data extracted from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The empirical analysis provides numerous insights and greatly complements the data gained from the literature and other sources. The final cross-country comparative analysis identifies three patterns followed by the national innovation systems in the six countries. The proposed cross-country relative positioning analysis may help in drawing policy implications and strategies leading to the enhancement of national competitive advantage and innovation capabilities of nations.

Keywords: National systems of innovation, Patent analysis, Comparative Analysis, framework, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
2 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding, Gender Differences, research output

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: Productivity, Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding

Procedia PDF Downloads 126