Y. Li

Publications

3 Ni Metallization on SiGe Nanowire

Authors: Y. Li, K. Buddharaju, X. P. Wang

Abstract:

The mechanism of nickel (Ni) metallization in silicon-germanium (Si0.5Ge0.5) alloy nanowire (NW) was studied. Transmission electron microscope imaging with in-situ annealing was conducted at temperatures of 200oC to 600°C. During rapid formation of Ni germanosilicide, loss of material from from the SiGe NW occurred which led to the formation of a thin Ni germanosilicide filament and eventual void. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis along the SiGe NW before and after annealing determined that Ge atoms tend to out-diffuse from the Ni germanosilicide towards the Ni source in the course of annealing. A model for the Ni germanosilicide formation in SiGe NW is proposed to explain this observation.

Keywords: nanowires, SiGe, germanosilicide

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2 Silicon Nanowire for Thermoelectric Applications: Effects of Contact Resistance

Authors: Y. Li, K. Buddharaju, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, S. J. Lee

Abstract:

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) based thermoelectric device (TED) has potential applications in areas such as chip level cooling/ energy harvesting. It is a great challenge however, to assemble an efficient device with these SiNW. The presence of parasitic in the form of interfacial electrical resistance will have a significant impact on the performance of the TED. In this work, we explore the effect of the electrical contact resistance on the performance of a TED. Numerical simulations are performed on SiNW to investigate such effects on its cooling performance. Intrinsically, SiNW individually without the unwanted parasitic effect has excellent cooling power density. However, the cooling effect is undermined with the contribution of the electrical contact resistance.

Keywords: Nanowire, Silicon, thermoelectric, electrical contact resistance, parasitics

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1 Simulation of Effect of Current Stressing on Reliability of Solder Joints with Cu-Pillar Bumps

Authors: Y. Li, Q. S. Zhang, H. Z. Huang, B. Y. Wu

Abstract:

The mechanism behind the electromigration and thermomigration failure in flip-chip solder joints with Cu-pillar bumps was investigated in this paper through using finite element method. Hot spot and the current crowding occurrs in the upper corner of copper column instead of solders of the common solder ball. The simulation results show that the change in thermal gradient is noticeable, which might greatly affect the reliability of solder joints with Cu-pillar bumps under current stressing. When the average applied current density is increased from 1×104 A/cm2 to 3×104 A/cm2 in solders, the thermal gradient would increase from 74 K/cm to 901 K/cm at an ambient temperature of 25°C. The force from thermal gradient of 901 K/cm can nearly induce thermomigration by itself. With the increase in applied current, the thermal gradient is growing. It is proposed that thermomigration likely causes a serious reliability issue for Cu column based interconnects.

Keywords: Simulation, electromigration, Cu-pillar bumps, Thermomigration

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Abstracts

3 Strategic Public Procurement: A Lever for Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Authors: B. Orser, A. Riding, Y. Li

Abstract:

To inform government about how gender gaps in SME ( small and medium-sized enterprise) contracting might be redressed, the research question was: What are the key obstacles to, and response strategies for, increasing the engagement of women business owners among SME suppliers to the government of Canada? Thirty-five interviews with senior policymakers, supplier diversity organization executives, and expert witnesses to the Canadian House of Commons, Standing Committee on Government Operations and Estimates. Qualitative data were conducted and analysed using N’Vivo 11 software. High order response categories included: (a) SME risk mitigation strategies, (b) SME procurement program design, and (c) performance measures. Primary obstacles cited were government red tape and long and complicated requests for proposals (RFPs). The majority of 'common' complaints occur when SMEs have questions about the federal procurement process. Witness responses included use of outcome-based rather than prescriptive procurement practices, more agile procurement, simplified RFPs, making payment within 30 days a procurement priority. Risk mitigation strategies included provision of procurement officers to assess risks and opportunities for businesses and development of more agile procurement procedures and processes. Recommendations to enhance program design included: improved definitional consistency of qualifiers and selection criteria, better co-ordination across agencies; clarification about how SME suppliers benefit from federal contracting; goal setting; specification of categories that are most suitable for women-owned businesses; and, increasing primary contractor awareness about the importance of subcontract relationships. Recommendations also included third-party certification of eligible firms and the need to enhance SMEs’ financial literacy to reduce financial errors. Finally, there remains the need for clear and consistent pre-program statistics to establish baselines (by sector, issuing department) performance measures, targets based on percentage of contracts granted, value of contract, percentage of target employee (women, indigenous), and community benefits including hiring local employees. The study advances strategies to enhance federal procurement programs to facilitate socio-economic policy objectives.

Keywords: Women, Policy, Small Business, Procurement

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2 Magnesium Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy

Authors: E. Locatelli, I. Monaco, R. C. Martin, Y. Li, R. Pini, M. Chiariello, M. Comes Franchini

Abstract:

Despite the many advantages of application of nanomaterials in the field of nanomedicine, increasing concerns have been expressed on their potential adverse effects on human health. There is urgency for novel green strategies toward novel materials with enhanced biocompatibility using safe reagents. Photothermal ablation therapy, which exploits localized heat increase of a few degrees to kill cancer cells, has appeared recently as a non-invasive and highly efficient therapy against various cancer types; anyway new agents able to generate hyperthermia when irradiated are needed and must have precise biocompatibility in order to avoid damage to healthy tissues and prevent toxicity. Recently, there has been increasing interest in magnesium as a biomaterial: it is the fourth most abundant cation in the human body, and it is essential for human metabolism. However magnesium nanoparticles (Mg NPs) have had limited diffusion due to the high reduction potential of magnesium cations, which makes NPs synthesis challenging. Herein, we report the synthesis of Mg NPs and their surface functionalization for the obtainment of a stable and biocompatible nanomaterial suitable for photothermal ablation therapy against cancer. We synthesized the Mg crystals by reducing MgCl2 with metallic lithium and exploiting naphthalene as an electron carrier: the lithium–naphthalene complex acts as the real reducing agent. Firstly, the nanocrystal particles were coated with the ligand 12-ethoxy ester dodecanehydroxamic acid, and then entrapped into water-dispersible polymeric micelles (PMs) made of the FDA-approved PLGA-b-PEG-COOH copolymer using the oil-in-water emulsion technique. Lately, we developed a more straightforward methodology by introducing chitosan, a highly biocompatible natural product, at the beginning of the process, simultaneously using lithium–naphthalene complex, thus having a one-pot procedure for the formation and surface modification of MgNPs. The obtained MgNPs were purified and fully characterized, showing diameters in the range of 50-300 nm. Notably, when coated with chitosan the particles remained stable as dry powder for more than 10 months. We proved the possibility of generating a temperature rise of a few to several degrees once MgNPs were illuminated using a 810 nm diode laser operating in continuous wave mode: the temperature rise resulted significant (0-15 °C) and concentration dependent. We then investigated potential cytotoxicity of the MgNPs: we used HN13 epithelial cells, derived from a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the hepa1-6 cell line, derived from hepatocellular carcinoma and very low toxicity was observed for both nanosystems. Finally, in vivo photothermal therapy was performed on xenograft hepa1-6 tumor bearing mice: the animals were treated with MgNPs coated with chitosan and showed no sign of suffering after the injection. After 12 hours the tumor was exposed to near-infrared laser light. The results clearly showed an extensive damage to tumor tissue after only 2 minutes of laser irradiation at 3Wcm-1, while no damage was reported when the tumor was treated with the laser and saline alone in control group. Despite the lower photothermal efficiency of Mg with respect to Au NPs, we consider MgNPs a promising, safe and green candidate for future clinical translations.

Keywords: Nanomedicine, chitosan, photothermal therapy, magnesium nanoparticles

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1 Correlation Between Hydrogen Charging and Charpy Impact of 4340 Steel

Authors: J. Alcisto, M. Papakyriakou, J. Guerra, A. Dominguez, M. Miller, J. Foyos, E. Jones, N. Ula, M. Hahn, L. Zeng, Y. Li, O. S. Es-Said

Abstract:

Current methods of testing for hydrogen charging are slow and time consuming. The objective of this paper was to determine if hydrogen charging can be detected quantitatively through the use of Charpy Impact (CI) testing. CI is a much faster and simpler process than current methods for detecting hydrogen charging. Steel plates were Electro Discharge Machined (EDM) into ninety-six 4340 steel CI samples and forty-eight tensile bars. All the samples were heat treated at 900°C to austentite and then rapidly quenched in water to form martensite. The samples were tempered at eight different target strengths/target temperatures (145, 160, 170, 180, 190, 205, 220, to 250KSI, thousands of pounds per square inch)/(1100, 1013, 956, 898, 840, 754, 667, 494 degrees Celsius). After a tedious process of grinding and machining v-notches to the Charpy samples, they were divided into four groups. One group was kept as received baseline for comparison while the other three groups were sent to Alcoa (Fasteners) Inc. in Torrance to be cadmium coated. The three groups were coated with three thicknesses (2, 3 and 5 mils). That means that the samples were charged with ascending hydrogen levels. The samples were CI tested and tensile tested, and the data was tabulated and compared to the baseline group of uncharged samples of the same material. The results of this study were successful and indicated that CI testing was able to quantitatively detect hydrogen charging.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, hydrogen charging, Electro Discharge Machined (EDM)

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