N. Barka

Publications

3 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli

Abstract:

Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell

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2 Simulation and Validation of Spur Gear Heated by Induction using 3d Model

Authors: A. Chebak, N. Barka, A. Menou, J. Brousseau, D. S. Ramdenee

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of hardness profile of spur gear heated by induction heating process in function of the machine parameters, such as the power (kW), the heating time (s) and the generator frequency (kHz). The global work is realized by 3D finite-element simulation applied to the process by coupling and resolving the electromagnetic field and the heat transfer problems, and it was performed in three distinguished steps. First, a Comsol 3D model was built using an adequate formulation and taking into account the material properties and the machine parameters. Second, the convergence study was conducted to optimize the mesh. Then, the surface temperatures and the case depths were deeply analyzed in function of the initial current density and the heating time in medium frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) heating modes and the edge effect were studied. Finally, the simulations results are validated using experimental tests.

Keywords: Simulation, experimental validation, Induction Heating, hardness profile

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1 Study of Currents and Temperature of Induced Spur Gear using 2d Simulation

Authors: N. Barka, P. Bocher, A. Chebak, J. Brousseau, D. S. Ramdenee

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of induced currents and temperature distribution in gear heated by induction process using 2D finite element (FE) model. The model is developed by coupling Maxwell and heat transfer equations into a multi-physics model. The obtained results allow comparing the medium frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) cases and the effect of machine parameters on the evolution of induced currents and temperature during heating. The sensitivity study of the temperature profile is conducted and the case hardness is predicted using the final temperature profile. These results are validated using tests and give a good understanding of phenomena during heating process.

Keywords: experimental validation, Induction Heating, spur gear, induced currents

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Abstracts

3 Modelling of Phase Transformation Kinetics in Post Heat-Treated Resistance Spot Weld of AISI 1010 Mild Steel

Authors: B. V. Feujofack Kemda, N. Barka, M. Jahazi, D. Osmani

Abstract:

Automobile manufacturers are constantly seeking means to reduce the weight of car bodies. The usage of several steel grades in auto body assembling has been found to be a good technique to enlighten vehicles weight. This few years, the usage of dual phase (DP) steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels and boron steels in some parts of the auto body have become a necessity because of their lightweight. However, these steels are martensitic, when they undergo a fast heat treatment, the resultant microstructure is essential, made of martensite. Resistance spot welding (RSW), one of the most used techniques in assembling auto bodies, becomes problematic in the case of these steels. RSW being indeed a process were steel is heated and cooled in a very short period of time, the resulting weld nugget is mostly fully martensitic, especially in the case of DP, TRIP and boron steels but that also holds for plain carbon steels as AISI 1010 grade which is extensively used in auto body inner parts. Martensite in its turn must be avoided as most as possible when welding steel because it is the principal source of brittleness and it weakens weld nugget. Thus, this work aims to find a mean to reduce martensite fraction in weld nugget when using RSW for assembling. The prediction of phase transformation kinetics during RSW has been done. That phase transformation kinetics prediction has been made possible through the modelling of the whole welding process, and a technique called post weld heat treatment (PWHT) have been applied in order to reduce martensite fraction in the weld nugget. Simulation has been performed for AISI 1010 grade, and results show that the application of PWHT leads to the formation of not only martensite but also ferrite, bainite and pearlite during the cooling of weld nugget. Welding experiments have been done in parallel and micrographic analyses show the presence of several phases in the weld nugget. Experimental weld geometry and phase proportions are in good agreement with simulation results, showing here the validity of the model.

Keywords: Modeling, Kinetics, phase transformation, post weld heat treatment, resistance spot welding, AISI 1010

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2 Removal of Heavy Metals by KOH Activated Diplotaxis harra Biomass: Experimental Design Optimization

Authors: H. Tounsadi, A. Khalidi, M. Abdennouri, N. Barka

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to produce high quality activated carbons from Diplotaxis harra biomass by potassium hydroxide activation and their application for heavy metals removal. To reduce the number of experiments, full factorial experimental design at two levels were carried out to occur optimal preparation conditions and better conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of different variables during the activation process, such as carbonization temperature, activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio (g KOH/g carbon) have been investigated, and the best production conditions were determined. The experimental results showed that removal of cadmium and cobalt ions onto activated carbons was more sensitive to methylene blue index instead of iodine number. Although, the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions is more influenced by activation temperature with a negative effect followed by the impregnation ratio with a positive impact. Based on the statistical data, the best conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt by prepared activated carbons have been established. The maximum iodine number and methylene blue index obtained under these conditions and the greater sorption capacities for cadmium and cobalt were investigated. These sorption capacities were greater than those of a commercial activated carbon used in water treatment.

Keywords: Experimental Design, cadmium, activated carbon, cobalt, Diplotaxis harra, potassium hydroxide

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1 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli

Abstract:

Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell

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