Dr. Anil Kumar

University: Beant College of Engineering & Technology, Gurdaspur, INDIA
Department: Department of Mechanical Engineering
Research Fields: Manufacturing, Non Traditional Machining, Electrical Discharge machining, Taguchi Optimization, Design of Experimentation, Response Surface Methodology.


6 Isospectral Hulthén Potential

Authors: Anil Kumar


Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics is an interesting framework to analyze nonrelativistic quantal problems. Using these techniques, we construct a family of strictly isospectral Hulth´en potentials. Isospectral wave functions are generated and plotted for different values of the deformation parameter.

Keywords: Hulth´en potential, Isospectral Hamiltonian

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5 Information Entropy of Isospectral Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Anil Kumar, C. Nagaraja Kumar


The position and momentum space information entropies of hydrogen atom are exactly evaluated. Using isospectral Hamiltonian approach, a family of isospectral potentials is constructed having same energy eigenvalues as that of the original potential. The information entropy content is obtained in position space as well as in momentum space. It is shown that the information entropy content in each level can be re-arranged as a function of deformation parameter.

Keywords: information entropy, BBM inequality, Isospectral Potential

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4 Neutralization of Alkaline Waste-Waters using a Blend of Microorganisms

Authors: Alka Sharma, Anil Kumar, Rita Kumar, Purnima Dhall, Niha M. Kulshreshtha


The efficient operation of any biological treatment process requires pre-treatment of incompatible pollutants such as acids, bases, oil, toxic substances, etc. which hamper the treatment of other major components which are otherwise degradable. The pre-treatment of alkaline waste-waters, generated from various industries like textile, paper & pulp, potato-processing industries, etc., having a pH of 10 or higher, is essential. The pre-treatment, i.e., neutralization of such alkaline waste-waters can be achieved by chemical as well as biological means. However, the biological pretreatment offers better package over the chemical means by being safe and economical. The biological pre-treatment can be accomplished by using a blend of microorganisms able to withstand such harsh alkaline conditions. In the present study, for the proper pre-treatment of alkaline waste-waters, a package of alkalophilic bacteria is formulated to neutralise the alkaline pH of the industrial waste-waters. The developed microbial package is cost-effective as well as environmental friendly.

Keywords: Biological, Textile, Pollutants, alkaline, alkalophilic bacteria

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3 Mathematical Modelling for Separation of Binary Aqueous Solution using Hollow Fiber Reverse Osmosis Module

Authors: Anil Kumar, S. Deswal


The mathematical equation for Separation of the binary aqueous solution is developed by using the Spiegler- Kedem theory. The characteristics of a B-9 hollow fibre module of Du Pont are determined by using these equations and their results are compared with the experimental results of Ohya et al. The agreement between these results is found to be excellent.

Keywords: Modeling, Binary aqueous solution, reverse osmosis module, Spiegler-Kedem theory

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2 Performance Evaluation of Powder Metallurgy Electrode in Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI D2 Steel Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Anil Kumar, Naveen Beri, S. Maheshwari, C. Sharma


In this paper an attempt has been made to correlate the usefulness of electrodes made through powder metallurgy (PM) in comparison with conventional copper electrode during electric discharge machining. Experimental results are presented on electric discharge machining of AISI D2 steel in kerosene with copper tungsten (30% Cu and 70% W) tool electrode made through powder metallurgy (PM) technique and Cu electrode. An L18 (21 37) orthogonal array of Taguchi methodology was used to identify the effect of process input factors (viz. current, duty cycle and flushing pressure) on the output factors {viz. material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR)}. It was found that CuW electrode (made through PM) gives high surface finish where as the Cu electrode is better for higher material removal rate.

Keywords: surface roughness (SR), Taguchi method, Material Removal Rate (MRR), Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Powder Metallurgy (PM)

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1 A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation

Authors: Anil Kumar, K. Negrat, Abdelsalam Almarimi, A. M. Negrat


In this paper, we present a robust and secure algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded, these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing. The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.

Keywords: Watermarking, DWT, chaotic system, Blind source separation (BSS)

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5 Investigation of Chemical Effects on the Lγ2,3 and Lγ4 X-ray Production Cross Sections for Some Compounds of 66dy at Photon Energies Close to L1 Absorption-edge Energy

Authors: Anil Kumar, Rajnish Kaur, Mateusz Czyzycki, Alessandro Migilori, Andreas Germanos Karydas, Sanjiv Puri


The radiative decay of Li(i=1-3) sub-shell vacancies produced through photoionization results in production of the characteristic emission spectrum comprising several X-ray lines, whereas non-radiative vacancy decay results in Auger electron spectrum. Accurate reliable data on the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray production (XRP) cross sections is of considerable importance for investigation of atomic inner-shell ionization processes as well as for quantitative elemental analysis of different types of samples employing the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis technique. At incident photon energies in vicinity of the absorption edge energies of an element, the many body effects including the electron correlation, core relaxation, inter-channel coupling and post-collision interactions become significant in the photoionization of atomic inner-shells. Further, in case of compounds, the characteristic emission spectrum of the specific element is expected to get influenced by the chemical environment (coordination number, oxidation state, nature of ligand/functional groups attached to central atom, etc.). These chemical effects on L X-ray fluorescence parameters have been investigated by performing the measurements at incident photon energies much higher than the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell absorption edge energies using EDXRF spectrometers. In the present work, the cross sections for production of the Lk(k= γ2,3, γ4) X-rays have been measured for some compounds of 66Dy, namely, Dy2O3, Dy2(CO3)3, Dy2(SO4)3.8H2O, DyI2 and Dy metal by tuning the incident photon energies few eV above the L1 absorption-edge energy in order to investigate the influence of chemical effects on these cross sections in presence of the many body effects which become significant at photon energies close to the absorption-edge energies. The present measurements have been performed under vacuum at the IAEA end-station of the X-ray fluorescence beam line (10.1L) of ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) using self-supporting pressed pellet targets (1.3 cm diameter, nominal thicknesses ~ 176 mg/cm2) of 66Dy compounds (procured from Sigma Aldrich) and a metallic foil of 66Dy (nominal thickness ~ 3.9 mg/cm2, procured from Good Fellow, UK). The present measured cross sections have been compared with theoretical values calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater(DHS) model based fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, Dirac-Fock(DF) model based X-ray emission rates and two sets of L1 sub-shell photoionization cross sections based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater(HFS) model and those deduced from the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock(DHF) model based total photoionization cross sections. The present measured XRP cross sections for 66Dy as well as for its compounds for the L2,3 and L4 X-rays, are found to be higher by ~14-36% than the two calculated set values. It is worth to be mentioned that L2,3 and L4 X-ray lines are originated by filling up of the L1 sub-shell vacancies by the outer sub-shell (N2,3 and O2,3) electrons which are much more sensitive to the chemical environment around the central atom. The present observed differences between measured and theoretical values are expected due to combined influence of the many-body effects and the chemical effects.

Keywords: Synchrotron Radiation, chemical effects, L X-ray production cross sections, Many body effects

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4 Cellulose Enhancement in Wood Used in Pulp Production by Overexpression of Korrigan and Sucrose Synthase Genes

Authors: Anil Kumar, Diwakar Aggarwal, M. Sudhakara Reddy


The wood of Eucalyptus, Populus and bamboos are some important species used as raw material for the manufacture of pulp. However, higher levels of lignin pose a problem during Kraft pulping and yield of pulp is also lower. In order to increase the yield of pulp per unit wood and reduce the use of chemicals during kraft pulping it is important to reduce the lignin content and/or increase cellulose content in wood. Cellulose biosynthesis in wood takes place by the coordinated action of many enzymes. The two important enzymes are KORRIGAN and SUCROSE SYNTHASE. KORRIGAN (Endo-1,4--glucanase) is implicated in the process of editing growing cellulose chains and improvement of the crystallinity of produced cellulose, whereas SUCROSE SYNTHASE is involved in providing substrate (UDP-glucose) for growing cellulose chains. The present study was aimed at the cloning, characterization and overexpression of these genes in Eucalyptus and Populus. An efficient shoot organogenesis protocol from leaf explants taken from micro shoots of the species has been developed. Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 and LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBI121 was achieved. Both the genes were cloned from cDNA library of Populus deltoides. These were subsequently characterized using various bioinformatics tools. The cloned genes were then inserted into pBI121 under the CaMV35S promotors replacing GUS gene. The constructs were then mobilized into above strains of Agrobacterium and used for the transformation work. Subsequently, genetic transformation of these clones with target genes following already developed protocol is in progress. Four transgenic lines of Eucalyptus tereticornis overexpressing Korrigan gene under the strong constitutive promoters CaMV35S have been developed, which are being further evaluated. Work on development of more transgenic lines overexpressing these genes in Populus and Eucalyptus is also in progress. This presentation will focus on important developments in this direction.

Keywords: Genetic Transformation, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Kraft pulping Populus deltoides

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3 An Experiment with Science Popularization in Rural Schools of Sehore District in Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Anil Kumar, Peeyush Verma, Anju Rawlley, Chanchal Mehra


India's school-going population is largely served by an educational system that is, in most rural parts, stuck with methods that emphasize rote learning, endless examinations, and monotonous classroom activities. Rural government schools are generally seen as having poor infrastructure, poor support system and low motivation for teaching as well as learning. It was experienced during the survey of this project that there is lesser motivation of rural boys and girls to attend their schools and still less likely chances to study science, tabooed as “difficult”. An experiment was conducted with the help of Rural Knowledge Network Project through Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India in five remote villages of Sehore District in Madhya Pradesh (India) during 2012-2015. These schools are located about 50-70 Km away from Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh and can distinctively qualify as average rural schools. Three tier methodology was adapted to unfold the experiment. In first tier randomly selected boys and girls from these schools were taken to a daylong visit to the Regional Science Centre located in Bhopal. In second tier, randomly selected half of those who visited earlier were again taken to the Science Centre to make models of Science. And in third tier, all the boys and girls studying science were exposed to video lectures and study material through web. The results have shown an interesting face towards learning science among youths in rural schools through peer learning or incremental learning. The students who had little or no interest in learning science became good learners and queries started pouring in from the neighbourhood village as well as a few parents requested to take their wards in the project to learn science. The paper presented is a case study of the experiment conducted in five rural schools of Sehore District. It reflects upon the methodology of developing awareness and interest among students and finally engaging them in popularising science through peer-to-peer learning using incremental learning elements. The students, who had a poor perception about science initially, had changed their attitude towards learning science during the project period. The results of this case, however, cannot be generalised unless replicated in the same setting elsewhere.

Keywords: popularisation of science, science temper, incremental learning, peer-to-peer learning

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2 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Anil Kumar, Salma Ahmed


This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: Retailing, emerging market, multichannel, Omni-channel

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1 Postharvest Studies Beyond Fresh Market Eating Quality: Phytochemical Changes in Peach Fruit During Ripening and Advanced Senescence

Authors: Anil Kumar, Mukesh Singh Mer, Brij Lal Attri, Raj Narayan


Postharvest studies were conducted under the concept that fruit do not qualify for the fresh market may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. One peach (Prunus persica cvs Red June) were evaluated for their photochemical content and antioxidant capacity during the ripening and over ripening periods (advanced senescence) for 12 and 15 d, respectively. Firmness decreased rapidly during this period from an initial pre –ripe stage of 5.85 lb/in2 for peach until the fruit reached the fully ripe stage of lb/in2. In this study we evaluate the varietal performance in respect of the quality beyond fresh market eating and nutrition levels. The varieties are (T-1 F-16-23), (T-2 Florda king), (T-3 Nectarine), (T-4 Red June). The result pertaining are there the highest fruit length (68.50 mm), fruit breadth (71.38 mm), fruit weight (186.11 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (8.74 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (1.66 %), ascorbic acid (440 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (19.77 %) and total sugar (51.73 %) found in T4- Red June, T-2 Florda King, T-3 Nectarine at harvesting time but decrease in fruit length ( 60.81 mm), fruit breadth (51.84 mm), fruit weight (143.03 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (6.29 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (0.80 %), ascorbic acid (329.50 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (34.03 %) and total sugar (26.97 %) found in T1- F-16-23, T-2 Florda King, T-1 F-16-23 and T-3 Nectarine after 15 days in freeze conditions when will have been since reached beyond market. The study reveals that the size and yield good in Red June and the nutritional value higher in Florda King and Nectarine peach. Fruit firmness remained unchanged afterwards. In addition, total soluble solids in peach were basically similar during the ripening and over ripening periods. Further research on secondary metabolism regulation during ripening and advanced senescence is needed to obtain fruit as enriched dietary sources of bioactive compounds or for its use in alternative high value health markets including dietary supplements, functional foods cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Metabolism, Pharmaceuticals, Acidity, ascorbic acid

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