N. Tugrul

Publications

17 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, M. B. Piskin, S. N. Turkmen Koc

Abstract:

Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: Microwave, activated carbon, H2SO4, chemical activation, pomegranate peel

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16 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, S. Kızıltas Demir

Abstract:

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: wastewater, gypsum, FGD wastes, HAP

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15 Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio on the Ultrasonic Synthesis of Zinc Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, M. Yildirim, E. M. Derun, A. Ersan, A. M. Erayvaz

Abstract:

Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, the method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to synthesis the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: XRD, FT-IR, zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, reaction efficiency

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14 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, D. S. Vardar

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be used as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame retardant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products were analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: Zinc borate, borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate synthesis

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13 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, S. N. Turkmen, E. M. Derun

Abstract:

Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: Microwave, activated carbon, chemical activation, pomegranate peel

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12 The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80oC reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.

Keywords: Hydrothermal Synthesis, copper borates, tincalconite, copper sulfate

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11 Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like lowcost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: Waste, fly ash, heavy metal, adsorbent

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10 The Cadmium Adsorption Study by Using Seyitomer Fly Ash, Diatomite and Molasses in Wastewater

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul, E. Cinar

Abstract:

Fly ash is an important waste, produced in thermal power plants which causes very important environmental pollutions. For this reason the usage and evaluation the fly ash in various areas are very important. Nearly, 15 million tons/year of fly ash is produced in Turkey. In this study, usage of fly ash with diatomite and molasses for heavy metal (Cd) adsorption from wastewater is investigated. The samples of Seyitomer region fly ash were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) then diatomite (0 and 1% in terms of fly ash, w/w) and molasses (0-0.75 mL) were pelletized under 30 MPa of pressure for the usage of cadmium (Cd) adsorption in wastewater. After the adsorption process, samples of Seyitomer were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). As a result, it is seen that the usage of Seyitomer fly ash is proper for cadmium (Cd) adsorption and an optimum adsorption yield with 52% is found at a compound with Seyitomer fly ash (10 g), diatomite (0.5 g) and molasses (0.75 mL) at 2.5 h of reaction time, pH:4, 20ºC of reaction temperature and 300 rpm of stirring rate.

Keywords: wastewater, fly ash, Adsorption, heavy metal, molasses, diatomite

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9 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun

Abstract:

Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of borongypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: Hydrothermal Synthesis, boron-gypsum, solution density, magnesium borate

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8 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, E. MoroydorDerun

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, theraw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3werecharacterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates.The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result,Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, FT-IR

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7 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: F. T. Senberber, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak E. Moroydor Derun

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: Microwave Energy, magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate

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6 The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, O. Dere Ozdemir, T. Yalcin

Abstract:

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less than the amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended to cause reducing intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.

Keywords: tea, ICP-OES, elements, sodium bicarbonate

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5 Combined Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc and Magnesium Borates at 100oC Using ZnO, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Magnesium borate(MB) istechnical ceramic for high heat-resisting, corrosion-resisting, super mechanical strength, superinsulation, light weight, high strength, and high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB) can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. ZB dehydrates above 290°C and anhydrous ZB has thermal resistance about 400°C. In this study, the raw materials of ZnO, MgO and H3BO3 were used with mole ratio of 1:1:9. With the starting materials hydrothermal method was applied at a temperature of 100oC. The reaction time was determined as 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result, the forms of Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], Admontite [MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)] and Mcallisterite [Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)] were synthesized.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, FT-IR, magnesium borate

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4 Microwave Dehydration Behavior of Admontite Mineral at 360W

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Dehydration behavior gives a hint about thermal properties of materials. It is important for the usage areas and transportation of minerals. Magnesium borates can be used as additive materials in areas such as in the production of superconducting materials, in the composition of detergents, due to the content of boron in the friction-reducing additives in oils and insulating coating compositions due to their good mechanic and thermal properties. In this study, thermal dehydration behavior of admontite (MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), which is a kind of magnesium borate mineral, is experimented by microwave energy at 360W. Structure of admontite is suitable for the investigation of dehydration behavior by microwave because of its seven moles of crystal water. It is seen that admontite lost its 28.7% of weight at the end of the 120 minutes heating in microwave furnace. 

Keywords: Microwave, magnesium borate, dehydration, Admontite

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3 Low Temperature Solid-State Zinc Borate Synthesis from ZnO and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borates can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. Zinc borate is white, non-hygroscopic and powder type product. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solidstate processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied at low temperatures of 600oC and 700oC using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with several mole ratios. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result the forms of ZnB4O7, Zn3(BO3)2, ZnB2O4 were synthesized and obtained along with the unreacted ZnO.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, FT-IR, solid-state method

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2 Temperature Effect on the Solid-State Synthesis of Dehydrated Zinc Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Turkey has 72 % of total world boron reserves on the basis of B2O3.Borates that is a refined form of boron minerals have a wide range of applications. Zinc borates can be used as multifunctional synergistic additives. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solid-state processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied between 500 and 800°C using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with 1:4 mole ratio. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman Spectrometer. As a result the form of ZnB4O7 was synthesized with the highest crystal score at 800°C.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, Raman, solid-state method

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1 Study on Characterization of Tuncbilek Fly Ash

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul, A.S. Kipcak, S. Kolemen

Abstract:

Fly ash is one of the residues generated in combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash [1]. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. Released waste from the thermal power plants is caused very significant problems as known. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of Tuncbilek fly ash like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, Tuncbilek fly ash was characterized. For this purpose; analysis such as sieve analysis, XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: fly ash, heavy metal, adsorbent, sieve

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Abstracts

14 Determination of Antioxidant Activities of Sumac (Rhus Coriaria) Extracts with Different Solvents

Authors: F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

As a nutraceutical, sumac (Rhus Coriaria) was extracted by using different solvents of methanol, ethanol, and water. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) method of free radical scavenging capacity was used to determine the effects of solvent on antioxidant activities of the plant. The total phenolic content was studied by The Folin Ciocalteu Reagent method. The antioxidant activities of extracts exhibit minor changes in different solvents and varied in the range of 84.3–86.4 %. The total phenolic contents are affected by the selected solvent. The highest total phenolic content was determined at the liquid phase of water and it was estimated as 26.3 mg/g in gallic acid.

Keywords: Solvent, DPPH, total phenolic content, sumac

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13 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, M. B. Piskin, S. N. Turkmen Koc

Abstract:

Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: Microwave, activated carbon, H2SO4, chemical activation, pomegranate peel

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12 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, E. Morodor Derun

Abstract:

In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.

Keywords: Modelling, Drying, Shrimp, Activation Energy, oven, effective moisture diffusivity

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11 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, D. S. Vardar

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: Zinc borate, borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate synthesis

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10 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, M. Yildirim, E. M. Derun, A. Ersan, A. M. Erayvaz

Abstract:

Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: XRD, FT-IR, zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, reaction efficiency

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9 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, S. Kızıltas Demir

Abstract:

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: Waste water, FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum

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8 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, S. N. Turkmen, E. M. Derun

Abstract:

Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: Microwave, Adsorption, activated carbon, chemical activation, pomegranate peel

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7 The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80°C reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.

Keywords: Hydrothermal Synthesis, copper borates, copper sulfate, tincalconite

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6 Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: Waste, fly ash, heavy metal, adsorbent

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5 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun

Abstract:

Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: Hydrothermal Synthesis, magnesium borate, boron-gypsum, solution density

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4 The Cadmium Adsorption Study by Using Seyitomer Fly Ash, Diatomite and Molasses in Wastewater

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul, E. Cinar

Abstract:

Fly ash is an important waste, produced in thermal power plants which causes very important environmental pollutions. For this reason the usage and evaluation the fly ash in various areas are very important. Nearly, 15 million tons/year of fly ash is produced in Turkey. In this study, usage of fly ash with diatomite and molasses for heavy metal (Cd) adsorption from wastewater is investigated. The samples of Seyitomer region fly ash were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) then diatomite (0 and 1% in terms of fly ash, w/w) and molasses (0-0.75 mL) were pelletized under 30 MPa of pressure for the usage of cadmium (Cd) adsorption in wastewater. After the adsorption process, samples of Seyitomer were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). As a result, it is seen that the usage of Seyitomer fly ash is proper for cadmium (Cd) adsorption and an optimum adsorption yield with 52% is found at a compound with Seyitomer fly ash (10 g), diatomite (0.5 g) and molasses (0.75 mL) at 2.5 h of reaction time, pH:4, 20ºC of reaction temperature and 300 rpm of stirring rate.

Keywords: wastewater, fly ash, Adsorption, heavy metal, molasses, diatomite

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3 The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, O. Dere Ozdemir, T. Yalcin, S. Kipcak

Abstract:

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas is aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended as it reduces intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.

Keywords: tea, ICP-OES, elements, sodium bicarbonate

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2 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: Microwave Energy, magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate

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1 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, FT-IR

Procedia PDF Downloads 225