Jiri Militky

Publications

1 Innovative Techniques for Characterization of Nonwoven Insulation Materials Embedded with Aerogel

Authors: Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Rajesh Mishra, Jakub Weiner, Adnan Mazari, Jiri Militky, Veera Kumar Arumugam

Abstract:

The major objective of this study is to understand the potential of a newly fabricated equipment to study the thermal properties of nonwoven textile fabrics treated with aerogel at subzero temperatures. Thermal conductivity was calculated by using the empirical relation Fourier’s law, The relationship between the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples were studied at various environmental temperatures (which was set in the clima temperature system between +25oC to -25oC). The newly fabricated equipment was found to be a suitable for measuring at subzero temperatures. This field of measurements is being developed and will be the subject of further research which will be more suitable for measurement of the various thermal characteristics.

Keywords: Nonwoven, Aerogel, Thermal Measurements, Hot plate Heading

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Abstracts

4 Investigating the Thermal Comfort Properties of Mohair Fabrics

Authors: Jiri Militky, Adine Gericke, Mohanapriya Venkataraman

Abstract:

Mohair, obtained from the Angora goat, is a luxury fiber and recognized as one of the best quality natural fibers. Expansion of the use of mohair into technical and functional textile products necessitates the need for a better understanding of how the use of mohair in fabrics will impact on its thermo-physiological comfort related properties. Despite its popularity, very little information is available on the quantification of the thermal and moisture management properties of mohair fabrics. This study investigated the effect of fibrous matter composition and fabric structural parameters on conductive and convective heat transfers to attain more information on the thermal comfort properties of mohair fabrics. Dry heat transfer through textiles may involve conduction through the fibrous phase, radiation through fabric interstices and convection of air within the structure. Factors that play a major role in heat transfer by conduction are fabric areal density (g/m2) and derived quantities such as cover factor and porosity. Convective heat transfer through fabrics is found in environmental conditions where there is wind-flow or the object is moving (e.g. running or walking). The thermal comfort properties of mohair fibers were objectively evaluated firstly in comparison with other textile fibers and secondly in a variety of fabric structures. Two sample sets were developed for this purpose, with fibre content, yarn structure and fabric design as main variables. SEM and microscopic images were obtained to closely examine the physical structures of the fibers and fabrics. Thermal comfort properties such as thermal resistance and thermal conductivity, as well as fabric thickness, were measured on the well-known Alambeta test instrument. Clothing insulation (clo) was calculated from the above. The thermal properties of fabrics under heat convection was evaluated using a laboratory model device developed at the Technical University of Liberec (referred to as the TP2-instrument). The effects of the different variables on fabric thermal comfort properties were analyzed statistically using TIBCO Statistica Software. The results showed that fabric structural properties, specifically sample thickness, played a significant role in determining the thermal comfort properties of the fabrics tested. It was found that regarding thermal resistance related to conductive heat flow, the effect of fiber type was not always statistically significant, probably as a result of the amount of trapped air within the fabric structure. The very low thermal conductivity of air, compared to that of the fibers, had a significant influence on the total conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples. This was confirmed by the high correlation of these factors with sample thickness. Regarding convective heat flow, the most important factor influencing the ability of the fabric to allow dry heat to move through the structure, was again fabric thickness. However, it would be wrong to totally disregard the effect of fiber composition on the thermal resistance of textile fabrics. In this study, the samples containing mohair or mohair/wool were consistently thicker than the others even though weaving parameters were kept constant. This can be ascribed to the physical properties of the mohair fibers that renders it exceptionally well towards trapping air among fibers (in a yarn) as well as among yarns (inside a fabric structure). The thicker structures trap more air to provide higher thermal insulation, but also prevent the free flow of air that allow thermal convection.

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, convective heat transfer, mohair fabrics, thermal comfort properties

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3 Development of Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabrics and Their Functional Properties

Authors: Jiri Militky, Vijay Baheti, Muhammad Zaman Khan

Abstract:

The present study is focused on the development of multifunctional cotton fabric while having good physiological comfort properties. The functional properties developed include superhydrophobicity (Lotus effect) and UV protection. For this, TiO₂ nanoparticles along with fluorocarbon and organic-inorganic binder have been used to optimize the multifunctional properties. Deposition of TiO₂ nanoparticles with water repellent finish on cotton fabric has been carried out using the pad dry cure method at fix parameters. The morphology and elemental composition of as-deposited particles have been studied by using SEM and EDS. The chemical composition of nanoparticles was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The treated samples exhibited excellent water repellency and UV protection factor. The study of the comfort properties of fabric showed that it had excellent physiological comfort properties. Optimized concentration of water repellent chemical (50g/l) was used in formulations with TiO₂ nanoparticles and organic-inorganic binder. Four formulations were prepared according to the design of the experiment. The formulations were applied to the cotton fabric by roller padding at room temperature (15–20°C). Surface morphology was investigated via SEM images. EDS analysis was also carried out to analyze the composition and atomic percentage of elements. The water contact angle (WCA) of cotton fabric increases with increase in TiO₂ nanoparticles concentration and reaches its maximum value (157°) when the concentration of TiO₂ is 20g/l. The water sliding angle (WSA) decreases and gains minimum value at the same concentration of TiO₂ at which WCA is highest. It was seen samples treated with formulations of TiO₂ nanoparticles exhibits excellent UPF, UV-A and UV-B blocking. However, there was no significant deterioration of air permeability. The water vapor permeability was also slightly decreased (4%) but is acceptable. It can be concluded that there is no significant change in both air and water vapor permeability after nanoparticles coating on the surface of the cotton fabric. The coated cotton fabric has little effect on the stiffness. The stiffness of coated samples was not increased significantly; thus comfort of cotton fabric is not decreased. This functionalized cotton fabric also exhibits good physiological comfort properties. ''The authors are also thankful to student grant competition 21312 provided at Technical University of Liberec''.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Functional, comfort, UV protective

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2 Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Jiri Militky, Daniel Karthik, Vijay Baheti, Sundaramurthy Palanisamy

Abstract:

Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.

Keywords: ball milling, damping factor, matrix-filler interface, particle reinforcements

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1 Effect of 3-Dimensional Knitted Spacer Fabrics Characteristics on Its Thermal and Compression Properties

Authors: Rajesh Mishra, Jiri Militky, Veerakumar Arumugam, Jana Salacova

Abstract:

The thermo-physiological comfort and compression properties of knitted spacer fabrics have been evaluated by varying the different spacer fabric parameters. Air permeability and water vapor transmission of the fabrics were measured using the Textest FX-3300 air permeability tester and PERMETEST. Then thermal behavior of fabrics was obtained by Thermal conductivity analyzer and overall moisture management capacity was evaluated by moisture management tester. Spacer Fabrics compression properties were also tested using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES-FB3). In the KES testing, the compression resilience, work of compression, linearity of compression and other parameters were calculated from the pressure-thickness curves. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed using new statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin in order to compare the influence of different fabric parameters on thermo-physiological and compression behavior of samples. This study established that the raw materials, type of spacer yarn, density, thickness and tightness of surface layer have significant influence on both thermal conductivity and work of compression in spacer fabrics. The parameter which mainly influence on the water vapor permeability of these fabrics is the properties of raw material i.e. the wetting and wicking properties of fibers. The Pearson correlation between moisture capacity of the fabrics and water vapour permeability was found using statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin. These findings are important requirements for the further designing of clothing for extreme environmental conditions.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, Moisture Management, work of compression (WC), resilience of compression (RC)

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