S. Singh

Publications

3 Potential Field Functions for Motion Planning and Posture of the Standard 3-Trailer System

Authors: S. Singh, K. Raghuwaiya, B. Sharma, J. Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon, in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of 3-trailer systems in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; ghost walls and the distance optimization technique (DOT) to strengthen point and posture stabilities, in the sense of Lyapunov, of our dynamical model. This new combination of techniques emerges as a convenient mechanism for obtaining feasible orientations at the target positions with an overall reduction in the complexity of the navigation laws. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws were demonstrated via simulations of two traffic scenarios.

Keywords: Motion Planning, posture, artificial potential fields, parking and collision-free trajectories

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2 Application of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in Desulfurization of US Coal: 10 L Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, S. Singh, H. Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

The desulfurization of coal using biological methods is an emerging technology. The biodesulfurization process uses the catalytic activity of chemolithotrophic acidpohiles in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 10 L batch stirred tank reactor having 10% pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. After 35 days of experiment, about 64% of pyrite and 21% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The findings of the present study indicate that the biodesulfurization process does have potential in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of about 5% showing its feasibility for large scale application.

Keywords: batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite, At.ferrroxidans

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1 Computationally Efficient Signal Quality Improvement Method for VoIP System

Authors: H. P. Singh, S. Singh

Abstract:

The voice signal in Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) system is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss jitter. The work in this paper presents the implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter for voice quality improvement in the VoIP system through distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm. The VoIP simulations are conducted with AMR-NB 6.70 kbps and G.729a speech coders at different packet loss rates and the performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrowband signal. The results show reduction in the computational complexity in the system and significant improvement in the quality of the VoIP voice signal.

Keywords: voip, packet loss, distributed arithmetic, Signal Quality, Speech Coder

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Abstracts

7 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, S. Srivastava, A. M., A. Mani, S. Singh, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya

Abstract:

Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: Mutation, molecular dynamics simulation, homology modelling, CspA

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6 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar

Abstract:

The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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5 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: S. Singh, V. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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4 Theoretical Study of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Semiconducting Rare Earth Chalcogenide Sm1-XEuXS under Pressure

Authors: S. Singh, R. Dubey, M. Sarwan

Abstract:

We have investigated the phase transition pressure and associated volume collapse in Sm1– X EuX S alloy (0≤x≤1) which shows transition from discontinuous to continuous as x is reduced. The calculated results from present approach are in good agreement with experimental data available for the end point members (x=0 and x=1). The results for the alloy counter parts are also in fair agreement with experimental data generated from the vegard’s law. An improved interaction potential model has been developed which includes coulomb, three body interaction, polarizability effect and overlap repulsive interaction operative up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the inclusion of polarizability effect has improved our results.

Keywords: Phase Transition, elastic constants, high pressure, rare earth compound

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3 Parental Education and Income Influencing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Oral Health Self-Care Practices

Authors: S. Singh, B. Nair

Abstract:

Oral health behaviors such as dietary preferences and tooth brushing are acquired during a child’s primary socialization period yet many oral health promotion interventions are implemented without taking into account the role and impact of parental influence in supporting healthy oral health behaviors. The aim and objective of this study was to determine the relationship between parental income and level of education with knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of oral health care practices. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and exploratory, and data collection occurred in two phases. Phase 1 comprised of a self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of parents of 313 Grade 1 learners aged between 5-6 years old attending one of twelve selected public primary schools in the Chatsworth Circuit, Durban, South Africa. Phase 2 comprised of focus group discussions held at 5 purposively selected schools. Data collection comprised of a semi-structured face-to-face group interview with the objective of obtaining a deeper understanding of parental knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of dental caries. Results and Discussion: Almost 56% of participants earned a monthly income of less than R6000 (600 US dollars). Nearly three quarters (77.5%) of participants indicated that they did not have medical aid/insurance scheme. More than three-quarters of the participants (76.6%) identified diet as being the primary cause of decayed teeth. More than half of the study sample (56.1%) indicated that milk teeth were important and that rotten teeth (74.6%) could affect the child’s health. Almost half (49.8%) of participants reported that “bad teeth” were inherited. With more than two-thirds of the participants (77.7%), having at most a high school education, there was a correlation between the level of the caregiver’s education and the oral health care of the child. The analysis of the correlation between a child having decayed teeth and income (p=.007); and the manner in which the income is received (p=.003) was statistically significant. The results indicate that more effort needs to be placed in understanding parental knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards dental caries. Parental level of education, income and oral health literacy is shown to be related to attitudes, and perceptions towards dental caries and its subsequent preventive measures. These findings have important implications for oral health planning at community and facility-based levels.

Keywords: Dental Caries, oral health prevention, parental education, attitudes and perceptions

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2 Potential Field Functions for Motion Planning and Posture of the Standard 3-Trailer System

Authors: S. Singh, K. Raghuwaiya, B. Sharma, J. Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon; in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of 3-trailer systems in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; ghost walls and the Distance Optimization Technique (DOT) to strengthen point and posture stabilities, in the sense of Lyapunov, of our dynamical model. This new combination of techniques emerges as a convenient mechanism for obtaining feasible orientations at the target positions with an overall reduction in the complexity of the navigation laws. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws were demonstrated via simulations of two traffic scenarios.

Keywords: Motion Planning, posture, artificial potential fields, parking and collision, free trajectories

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1 Urban Dust Influence on the Foliar Surface and Biochemical Constituents of Selected Plants in the National Capital Region of Delhi, India

Authors: S. Singh, G. P. Gupta, B. Kumar, U. C. Kulshrestha

Abstract:

Very high loadings of atmospheric dust in the Indian region contribute to remarkably higher levels of particulate matter. During dry weather conditions which prevail most of the year, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces affecting their morphology, stomata and biochemical constituents. This study reports chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of two medicinal plants i.e. Morus (Morus alba) and Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) in the urban environment of National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi at two sites i.e. Jawaharlal Nehru University (residential) and Sahibabad (industrial). Atmospheric dust was characterized for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg++, Ca++) along with the biochemical parameters Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total soluble sugar, relative water content (RWC), pH, and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the concentrations of major ions in dustfall were higher at the industrial site as compared to the residential site due to the higher level of anthropogenic activities. Both the plant species grown at industrial site had significantly lower values of chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll, carotenoid but relatively higher values of total soluble sugar and ascorbic acid indicating stressful conditions due to industrial and vehicular emissions.

Keywords: Urban Environment, dustfall, biochemical constituents, atmospheric dust

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