Sumaeth Chavadej

Publications

8 Effect of Different Microbial Strains on Biological Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Authors: Achiraya Jiraprasertwong, Sumaeth Chavadej, Erdogan Gulari

Abstract:

Among agricultural residues, sugarcane bagasse is one of the most convincing raw materials for the production of bioethanol due to its availability, and low cost through enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. A pretreatment step is needed to enhance the enzymatic step. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Thailand, was pretreated biologically with various microorganisms of white-rot fungus—Phanerochaete sordid (SK 7), Cellulomonas sp. (TISTR 784), and strain A 002 (Bacillus subtilis isolated from Thai higher termites). All samples with various microbial pretreatments were further hydrolyzed enzymatically by a commercial enzyme obtained from Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the pretreatment with the white-rot fungus gave the highest glucose concentration around two-fold higher when compared with the others.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Pretreatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, sugarcane bagasse

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7 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Sumaeth Chavadej, Erdogan Gulari

Abstract:

The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U·g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Pretreatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, corncob

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6 A Comparison of Conventional and Biodegradable Chelating Agent in Different Type of Surfactant Solutions for Soap Scum Removal

Authors: Sumaeth Chavadej, Prariyada Theptat, John F. Scamehorn

Abstract:

One of the most challenges for hard surface cleaning product is to get rid of soap scum, a filmy sticky layer in the bathroom. The deposits of soap scum can be removed by using a proper surfactant solution with chelating agent. Unfortunately, the conventional chelating agent, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), has low biodegradability, which can be tolerance in water resources and harmful to aquatic animal and microorganism. In this study, two biodegradable chelating agents, ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) were introduced as a replacement of EDTA. The result shows that using GLDA with amphoteric surfactant gave the highest equilibrium solubility of soap scum.

Keywords: EDDS, Biodegradable chelating agent, GLDA, Soap scum

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5 Effect of COD Loading Rate on Hydrogen Production from Alcohol Wastewater

Authors: Sumaeth Chavadej, Patcharee Intanoo, Jittipan Chavadej

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate hydrogen production from alcohol wastewater by anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under thermophillic operation. The ASBR unit used in this study had a liquid holding volume of 4 L and was operated at 6 cycles per day. The seed sludge taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket unit treating the same wastewater was boiled at 95 °C for 15 min before being fed to the ASBR unit. The ASBR system was operated at different COD loading rates at a thermophillic temperature (55 °C), and controlled pH of 5.5. When the system was operated under optimum conditions (providing maximum hydrogen production performance) at a feed COD of 60 000 mg/l, and a COD loading rate of 68 kg/m3 d, the produced gas contained 43 % H2 content in the produced gas. Moreover, the hydrogen yield and the specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) were 130 ml H2/g COD removed and 2100 ml H2/l d, respectively.

Keywords: Biohydrogen, Alcohol wastewater, Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), Thermophillic operation

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4 Ethylene Epoxidation in a Low-Temperature Parallel Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge System: Effects of Ethylene Feed Position and O2/C2H4 Feed Molar Ratio

Authors: Sumaeth Chavadej, Bunphot Paosombat, Thitiporn Suttikul

Abstract:

The effects of ethylene (C2H4) feed position and O2/C2H4 feed molar ratio on ethylene epoxidation in a parallel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were studied. The results showed that the ethylene feed position fraction of 0.5 and the feed molar ratio of O2/C2H4 of 0.2:1 gave the highest EO selectivity of 34.3% and the highest EO yield of 5.28% with low power consumptions of 2.11×10-16 Ws/molecule of ethylene converted and 6.34×10-16 Ws/molecule of EO produced when the DBD system was operated under the best conditions: an applied voltage of 19 kV, an input frequency of 500 Hz and a total feed flow rate of 50 cm3/min. The separate ethylene feed system provided much higher epoxidation activity as compared to the mixed feed system which gave EO selectivity of 15.5%, EO yield of 2.1% and the power consumption of EO produced of 7.7×10-16 Ws/molecule.

Keywords: Epoxidation, dielectric barrier discharge, Ethylene Oxide, C2H4 Feed Position

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3 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Amine-Based Hybrid Solvent Absorption

Authors: Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Sumaeth Chavadej, Santi Kulprathipanja, Supitcha Rinprasertmeechai

Abstract:

This study was to investigate the performance of hybrid solvents blended between primary, secondary, or tertiary amines and piperazine (PZ) for CO2 removal from flue gas in terms of CO2 absorption capacity and regeneration efficiency at 90 oC. Alkanolamines used in this work were monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA). The CO2 absorption was experimentally examined under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The results show that MEA blend with PZ provided the maximum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.50 mol CO2/mol amine while TEA provided the minimum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.30 mol CO2/mol amine. TEA was easier to regenerate for both first cycle and second cycle with less loss of absorption capacity. The regeneration efficiency of TEA was 95.09 and 92.89 %, for the first and second generation cycles, respectively.

Keywords: flue gas, CO2 removal, CO2 absorption capacity, regeneration efficiency

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2 Production of Glucose from the Hydrolysis of Cassava Residue using Bacteria Isolates from Thai Higher Termites

Authors: Pitcha Wongskeo, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The possibility of using cassava residue containing 49.66% starch, 21.47% cellulose, 12.97% hemicellulose, and 21.86% lignin as a raw material to produce glucose using enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. In the experiment, each reactor contained the cassava residue, bacteria cells, and production medium. The effects of particles size (40 mesh and 60 mesh) and strains of bacteria (A002 and M015) isolated from Thai higher termites, Microcerotermes sp., on the glucose concentration at 37°C were focused. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a refractive index detector was used to determine the quantity of glucose. The maximum glucose concentration obtained at 37°C using strain A002 and 60 mesh of the cassava residue was 1.51 g/L at 10 h.

Keywords: cassava, Glucose, Hydrolysis, termites

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1 Hydrogen Production from Alcohol Wastewater by Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors under Mesophilic Temperature

Authors: Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Sumaeth Chavadej, Thipsalin Poontaweegeratigarn

Abstract:

In this work, biohydrogen production via dark fermentation from alcohol wastewater using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB) with a working volume of 4 L was investigated to find the optimum conditions for a maximum hydrogen yield. The system was operated at different COD loading rates (23, 31, 46 and 62 kg/m3d) at mesophilic temperature (37 ºC) and pH 5.5. The seed sludge was pretreated before being fed to the UASB system by boiling at 95 ºC for 15 min. When the system was operated under the optimum COD loading rate of 46 kg/m3d, it provided the hydrogen content of 27%, hydrogen yield of 125.1 ml H2/g COD removed and 95.1 ml H2/g COD applied, hydrogen production rate of 18 l/d, specific hydrogen production rate of 1080 ml H2/g MLVSS d and 1430 ml H2/ L d, and COD removal of 24%.

Keywords: Hydrogen production, optimum condition, Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB), Alcohol wastewater

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Abstracts

3 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Sumaeth Chavadej, Krittiya Pornmai

Abstract:

The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Plasma Technology, reforming process, gliding arc discharge

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2 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Sumaeth Chavadej, Erdogan Gulari

Abstract:

The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: Glucose, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, corncob, microbial pretreatment

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1 Effect of Different Microbial Strains on Biological Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Authors: Achiraya Jiraprasertwong, Sumaeth Chavadej, Erdogan Gulari

Abstract:

Among agricultural residues, sugarcane bagasse is one of the most convincing raw materials for the production of bioethanol due to its availability, and low cost through enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. A pretreatment step is needed to enhance the enzymatic step. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Thailand, was pretreated biologically with various microorganisms of white-rot fungus—Phanerochaete sordid (SK 7), Cellulomonas sp. (TISTR 784), and strain A 002 (Bacillus subtilis isolated from Thai higher termites). All samples with various microbial pretreatments were further hydrolyzed enzymatically by a commercial enzyme obtained from Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the pretreatment with the white-rot fungus gave the highest glucose concentration around two-fold higher when compared with the others.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Pretreatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, sugarcane bagasse

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