H. Ahmad

Publications

6 Fabrication and Characterization of Al2O3 Based Electrical Insulation Coatings Around SiC Fibers

Authors: H. Ahmad, G. Wagner, S. Palaniyappan, P. K. Chennam, M. Trautmann, T. Mehner, T. Lampke

Abstract:

In structural-health monitoring of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs), every single inorganic fiber sensor that are integrated into the bulk material requires an electrical insulation around itself, when the surrounding reinforcing fibers are electrically conductive. This results in a more accurate data acquisition only from the sensor fiber without any electrical interventions. For this purpose, thin nano-films of aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-based electrical-insulation coatings have been fabricated around the Silicon Carbide (SiC) single fiber sensors through reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtered coatings were amorphous in nature and the thickness of the coatings increased with an increase in the sputter time. Microstructural characterization of the coated fibers performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a homogeneous circumferential coating with no detectable defects or cracks on the surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the as-sputtered and 2 hours annealed coatings (825 & 1125 ˚C) revealed the amorphous and crystalline phases of Al2O3 respectively. Raman spectroscopic analyses produced no characteristic bands of Al2O3, as the thickness of the films was in the nanometer (nm) range, which is too small to overcome the actual penetration depth of the laser used. In addition, the influence of the insulation coatings on the mechanical properties of the SiC sensor fibers has been analyzed.

Keywords: Al2O3 insulation coating, reactive sputtering, SiC single fiber sensor, single fiber tensile test

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5 Cooling-Rate Induced Fiber Birefringence Variation in Regenerated High Birefringent Fiber

Authors: H. Ahmad, M. H. Lai, D. S. Gunawardena, K. S. Lim

Abstract:

In this paper, we have reported birefringence manipulation in regenerated high birefringent fiber Bragg grating (RPMG) by using CO2 laser annealing method. The results indicate that the birefringence of RPMG remains unchanged after CO2 laser annealing followed by slow cooling process, but reduced after fast cooling process (~5.6×10-5). After a series of annealing procedures with different cooling rates, the obtained results show that slower the cooling rate, higher the birefringence of RPMG. The volume, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and glass transition temperature (Tg) change of stress applying part in RPMG during cooling process are responsible for the birefringence change. Therefore, these findings are important to the RPMG sensor in high and dynamic temperature environment. The measuring accuracy, range and sensitivity of RPMG sensor is greatly affected by its birefringence value. This work also opens up a new application of CO2 laser for fiber annealing and birefringence modification.

Keywords: Thermal Stress, birefringence, CO2 laser annealing, regenerated gratings

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4 Envelope Echo Signal of Metal Sphere in the Fresh Water

Authors: H. Ahmad, A. Mahfurdz, Sunardi

Abstract:

An envelope echo signal measurement is proposed in this paper using echo signal observation from the 200 kHz echo sounder receiver. The envelope signal without any object is compared with the envelope signal of the sphere. Two diameter size steel ball (3.1 cm & 2.2 cm) and two diameter size air filled stainless steel ball (4.8 cm & 7.4 cm) used in this experiment. The target was positioned about 0.5 m and 1.0 meter from the transducer face using nylon rope. From the echo observation in time domain, it is obviously shown that echo signal structure is different between the size, distance and type of metal sphere. The amplitude envelope voltage for the bigger sphere is higher compare to the small sphere and it confirm that the bigger sphere have higher target strength compare to the small sphere. Although the structure signal without any object are different compare to the signal from the sphere, the reflected signal from the tank floor increase linearly with the sphere size. We considered this event happened because of the object position approximately to the tank floor.

Keywords: sphere, echo sounder, target strength, echo signal

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3 Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition

Authors: H. Ahmad, M. H. Ahmad, A. A. A. Jamil, M. A. M. Piah, A. Darus, Y. Z. Arief, N. Bashir

Abstract:

The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt % respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant material are required.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, fillers, electrical tree, siliconerubber

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2 Curing Methods Yield Multiple Refractive Index of Benzocyclobutene Polymer Film

Authors: N.A.M. Yahya, W.H. Lim, S.W. Phang, H. Ahmad, R. Zakaria, F.R. Mahamd Adikan

Abstract:

Refractive index control of benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) is achieved by facilitating different conditions during the thermal curing of BCB film. Refractive index (RI) change of 1.49% is obtained with curing of BCB film using an oven, while the RI change is 0.1% when the BCB is cured using a hotplate. The two different curing methods exhibit a temperature dependent refractive index change of the BCB photosensitive polymer. By carefully controlling the curing conditions, multiple layers of BCB with different RI can be fabricated, which can then be applied in the fabrication of optical waveguides.

Keywords: Polymers, BCB 4024-40, curing method, multiple refractiveindex

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1 A Materialized Approach to the Integration of XML Documents: the OSIX System

Authors: H. Ahmad, S. Kermanshahani, A. Simonet, M. Simonet

Abstract:

The data exchanged on the Web are of different nature from those treated by the classical database management systems; these data are called semi-structured data since they do not have a regular and static structure like data found in a relational database; their schema is dynamic and may contain missing data or types. Therefore, the needs for developing further techniques and algorithms to exploit and integrate such data, and extract relevant information for the user have been raised. In this paper we present the system OSIX (Osiris based System for Integration of XML Sources). This system has a Data Warehouse model designed for the integration of semi-structured data and more precisely for the integration of XML documents. The architecture of OSIX relies on the Osiris system, a DL-based model designed for the representation and management of databases and knowledge bases. Osiris is a viewbased data model whose indexing system supports semantic query optimization. We show that the problem of query processing on a XML source is optimized by the indexing approach proposed by Osiris.

Keywords: Data Integration, Semi-structured Data, xml, views

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Abstracts

2 Fabrication and Characterization of Al2O3 Based Electrical Insulation Coatings Around SiC Fibers

Authors: H. Ahmad, G. Wagner, S. Palaniyappan, P. K. Chennam, M. Trautmann, T. Mehner, T. Lampke

Abstract:

In structural-health monitoring of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs), every single inorganic fiber sensor that are integrated into the bulk material requires an electrical insulation around itself, when the surrounding reinforcing fibers are electrically conductive. This results in a more accurate data acquisition only from the sensor fiber without any electrical interventions. For this purpose, thin nano-films of aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-based electrical-insulation coatings have been fabricated around the Silicon Carbide (SiC) single fiber sensors through reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtered coatings were amorphous in nature and the thickness of the coatings increased with an increase in the sputter time. Microstructural characterization of the coated fibers performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a homogeneous circumferential coating with no detectable defects or cracks on the surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the as-sputtered and 2 hours annealed coatings (825 & 1125 ˚C) revealed the amorphous and crystalline phases of Al2O3 respectively. Raman spectroscopic analyses produced no characteristic bands of Al2O3, as the thickness of the films was in the nanometer (nm) range, which is too small to overcome the actual penetration depth of the laser used. In addition, the influence of the insulation coatings on the mechanical properties of the SiC sensor fibers has been analyzed.

Keywords: Al₂O₃ thin film, electrical insulation coating, PVD process, SiC fibre, single fibre tensile test

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1 Biomolecular Interaction of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes

Authors: H. Ahmad, S. N. Harun

Abstract:

A series of ruthenium(II) complexes, including two novel compounds [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+ where dppz = dipyrido-[3,2-a:2’,3’-c]phenazine, and L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (PIP) or 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (p-HPIP) have been synthesized and characterized. The previously reported complexes [Ru(bpy)2L]2+ and [Ru(phen)2L]2+ were also prepared. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, ESI-Mass spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photophysical properties were analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ and [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ displayed ‘molecular light-switch’ effect as they have high emission in acetonitrile but no emission in water. The cytotoxicity of all complexes against cancer cell lines Hela and MCF-7 were investigated through standard MTT assay. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ showed moderate toxicity on both MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 of 37.64 µM and 28.02 µM, respectively. Interestingly, [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity results with IC50 of 13.52 µM on Hela and 11.63 µM on MCF-7 cell lines which are comparable to the infamous anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of this complex series increased as the ligands size extended in order of [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(phen)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, anticancer, ruthenium, molecular light-switch

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