Fred A. O. Otieno

Publications

1 Run-off Storage in Sand Reservoirs as an Alternative Source of Water Supply for Rura land Semi-arid areas of South Africa

Authors: Olufisayo A. Olufayo, Fred A. O. Otieno, George M. Ochieng

Abstract:

Abstraction of water from the dry river sand-beds is well-known as an alternative source of water during dry seasons. Internally, because of the form of sand particles, voids are created which can store water in the riverbeds. Large rivers are rare in South Africa. Many rivers are sand river types and without water during the prolonged dry periods. South Africa has not taken full advantage of water storage in sand as a solution to the growing water scarcity both in urban and rural areas. The paper reviews the benefits of run-off storage in sand reservoirs gained from other arid areas and need for adoption in rural areas of South Africa as an alternative water supply where it is probable.

Keywords: Groundwater, Perennial river, Run-off storage, Sandreservoir

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Abstracts

2 Assessment of Drainage Water Quality in South Africa: Case Study of Vaal-Harts Irrigation Scheme

Authors: Josiah A. Adeyemo, Fred A. O. Otieno, Olumuyiwa I. Ojo

Abstract:

South Africa is water-stressed being a semi-arid country with limited annual rainfall supply and a lack of perennial streams. The future implications of population growth combined with the uncertainty of climate change are likely to have significant financial, human and ecological impacts on already scarce water resources. The waste water from the drainage canals of the Vaal-Harts irrigation scheme (VHS) located in Jan Kempdorp, a farming community in South Africa, were investigated for possible irrigation re-use and their effects on the immediate environment. Three major drains within the scheme were identified and sampled. Drainage water samples were analysed to determine its characteristics. The water samples analyzed had pH values in the range of 5.5 and 6.4 which is below the normal range for irrigation water and very low to moderate salinity (electrical conductivity 0.09-0.82 dS/m). The adjusted sodium adsorption ratio values in all the samples were also very low (<0.2), indicating very low sodicity hazards. The nitrate concentration in most of the samples was high, ranging from 4.8 to 53 mg/l. The reuse of the drainage water for irrigation is possible, but with further treatment. Some suggestions were offered in the safe management of drainage water in VHS.

Keywords: Environment, irrigation, Water Quality, Pollutants, drainage canal

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1 Environmental Impact Assessment of OMI Irrigation Scheme, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa I. Ojo, Kola Amao, Josiah A. Adeyemo, Fred A. O. Otieno

Abstract:

A study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Kampe (Omi) irrigation scheme with respect to public health hazards, the rising water table, salinity and alkalinity problems on the project site. A structured questionnaire was used as the main tool to gather information on the effect of the irrigation project on the various communities around the project site. The different sections of the questionnaire enabled the gathering of information ranging from general to more specific information. The results obtained from the study showed that the two effects are obvious: the 'positive effects' which include increasing the socioeconomic development of the entire communities, resulting in an increase in employment opportunities and better lifestyle and the 'negative effects' in which malaria (100% occurrence) and schistosomiasis (66.7%) were found to be active diseases caused by irrigation activities. Increase in height of water table and salinity is eminent in the irrigation site unless adequate drainage is provided. The collection and experimental analyses of representation soil and water samples from each scheme were used to assess the current status of each receptor. Results obtained indicate the absence of soil with sodium adsorption ration (SAR) values ranging from 3.0 to 3.89, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ranged from 3.8% to 5.5% while pH values ranged from 6.60 to 7.00. Drainage facilities of the project site are inadequate, therefore making it difficult to leach the soil and flood history is occasional.

Keywords: irrigation, Impact, Soil Analysis, Nigeria

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