Dr. Muhammad Imran

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
University: PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
Department: Institute of Geoinformation and Earth Observation
Research Fields: Geographical Information Systems, Remote Sensing, Agricultural and Environmental Applications

Publications

2 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad

Abstract:

The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.

Keywords: temperature, Rainfall, panel models, Landsat NDVI

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1 Studies on Seasonal Variations of Physico- Chemical Parameters of Fish Farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muhammad Imran, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Ashraf, Mehtab Ahmad, Muhammad Jamshed Khan, Muzaffar Ali, Arshad Ali, Memoona Qayyum Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of fish farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Department of Fisheries Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan for a period of eight months from January to August 2008. Water samples were collected on fifteen days basis and have been analyzed for estimation of Air temperature, Water temperature, Light penetration, pH, Total dissolved oxygen, Clouds, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total carbonates, Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Calcium and Hardness. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in all the physico-chemical parameters of fish farm. The overall physicochemical parameters of fish pond water remained within the tolerable range throughout the study period.

Keywords: Water Quality, Freshwater, seasonal variation, Fish farm, Chemical factor

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Abstracts

7 Improving the Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil for High Health Index: An FEM Based Approach Using Nanofluids

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Fatima Khurshid, Noor Ul Ain, Syed Abdul Rehman Kashif, Zainab Riaz, Abdullah Usman Khan

Abstract:

As the world is moving towards extra-high voltage (EHV) and ultra-high voltage (UHV) power systems, the performance requirements of power transformers are becoming crucial to the system reliability and security. With the transformers being an essential component of a power system, low health index of transformers poses greater risks for safe and reliable operation. Therefore, to meet the rising demands of the power system and transformer performance, researchers are being prompted to provide solutions for enhanced thermal and electrical properties of transformers. This paper proposes an approach to improve the health index of a transformer by using nano-technology in conjunction with bio-degradable oils. Vegetable oils can serve as potential dielectric fluid alternatives to the conventional mineral oils, owing to their numerous inherent benefits; namely, higher fire and flashpoints, and being environment-friendly in nature. Moreover, the addition of nanoparticles in the dielectric fluid further serves to improve the dielectric strength of the insulation medium. In this research, using the finite element method (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics environment, and a 2D space dimension, three different oil samples have been modelled, and the electric field distribution is computed for each sample at various electric potentials, i.e., 90 kV, 100 kV, 150 kV, and 200 kV. Furthermore, each sample has been modified with the addition of nanoparticles of different radii (50 nm and 100 nm) and at different interparticle distance (5 mm and 10 mm), considering an instant of time. The nanoparticles used are non-conductive and have been modelled as alumina (Al₂O₃). The geometry has been modelled according to IEC standard 60897, with a standard electrode gap distance of 25 mm. For an input supply voltage of 100 kV, the maximum electric field stresses obtained for the samples of synthetic vegetable oil, olive oil, and mineral oil are 5.08 ×10⁶ V/m, 5.11×10⁶ V/m and 5.62×10⁶ V/m, respectively. It is observed that for the unmodified samples, vegetable oils have a greater dielectric strength as compared to the conventionally used mineral oils because of their higher flash points and higher values of relative permittivity. Also, for the modified samples, the addition of nanoparticles inhibits the streamer propagation inside the dielectric medium and hence, serves to improve the dielectric properties of the medium.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Finite Element Method, dielectric strength, health index, streamer propagation

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6 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik

Abstract:

Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: Quality, age, Fruit, cultivars, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

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5 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad

Abstract:

The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.

Keywords: temperature, Rainfall, panel models, Landsat NDVI

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4 Bacterial Profiling and Development of Molecular Diagnostic Assays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Bovine mastitis

Authors: Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Imran, Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Tayyab, Yung Fu Chang

Abstract:

For the identification of bovine mastitic pathogen, an economical, rapid and sensitive molecular diagnostic assay is developed by PCR multiplexing of gene and pathogenic species specific DNA sequences. The multiplex PCR assay is developed for detecting nine important bacterial pathogens causing mastitis Worldwide. The bacterial species selected for this study are Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes Mycoplasma bovis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A single reaction assay was developed and validated by 27 reference strains and further tested on 276 bacterial strains obtained from culturing mastitic milk. The multiplex PCR assay developed here is further evaluated by applying directly on genomic DNA isolated from 200 mastitic milk samples. It is compared with bacterial culturing method and proved to be more sensitive, rapid, economical and can specifically identify 9 bacterial pathogens in a single reaction. It has detected the pathogens in few culture negative mastitic samples. Recognition of disease is the foundation of disease control and prevention. This assay can be very helpful for maintaining the udder health and milk monitoring.

Keywords: Bacteria, Milk, Mastitis, multiplex PCR

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3 Effect of Microencapsulated Butyric Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Ileal Digestibility of Protein, Gut Health and Immunity in Broilers

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Saeed Ahmed, Yasir Allah Ditta, Shahid Mehmood, Zahid Rasool

Abstract:

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of microencapsulated butyric (MEB) on growth performance, gut health and immunity in commercial broiler chickens. In total, 336 day-old Hubbard classic broilers chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (Control, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45g/kg of butyric acid) under completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 28 birds in each replicate. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, intestinal morphology, apparent ileal digestibility of protein and immunity parameters were evaluated. At the end of the experiment (35-d) 3 birds/replicate in each group were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect blood, duodenal samples and ileal digesta. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA technique. The results indicated improved body weight gain (P = 0.0222), feed conversion ratio (P = 0.0056), duodenal villus height (P = 0.0512), AID (P = 0.0098) antibody titer against Newcastle disease improved (P = 0.0326). Treatments remained unresponsive with respect to feed intake (P = 0.9685).

Keywords: Gut Health, broilers, butyric acid, ileal digestibility

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2 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Mehwish Azam, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim

Abstract:

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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1 Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on the Quality Parameters of Yogurt during Storage

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, Sabahat Yaqub, Ayesha Sameen, Sarfraz Ahmad

Abstract:

Yoghurt is one of the famous nutritious fermented milk products which have myriad of positive health effects on human beings and curable against different intestinal diseases. This research was conducted to observe effects of different artificial sweeteners on the quality parameters of yoghurt with relation to storage. Some people are allergic to natural sweeteners so artificial sweetener will be helpful for them. Physical-chemical, Microbiology and various sensory evaluation tests were carried out with the interval of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. It was outcome from this study that addition of artificial sweeteners in yoghurt has shown much harmful effects on the yoghurt microorganisms and other physicochemical parameters from quality point of view. Best results for acceptance were obtained when aspartame was added in yoghurt at level of 0.022 percent. In addition, growth of beneficial microorganisms in yoghurt was also improved as well as other sensory attributes were enhanced by the addition of aspartame.

Keywords: Storage, Quality Parameters, yoghurt, artificial sweetener

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