Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Process Control Related Publications

4 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto, Takashi Shimizu

Abstract:

Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Process Control, Optimal Control, Model Predictive Control, crystal growth

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3 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Crossover Technologies in Industrial Applications

Authors: W. Schellong

Abstract:

Industry accounts for one-third of global final energy demand. Crossover technologies (e.g. motors, pumps, process heat, and air conditioning) play an important role in improving energy efficiency. These technologies are used in many applications independent of the production branch. Especially electrical power is used by drives, pumps, compressors, and lightning. The paper demonstrates the algorithm of the energy analysis by some selected case studies for typical industrial processes. The energy analysis represents an essential part of energy management systems (EMS). Generally, process control system (PCS) can support EMS. They provide information about the production process, and they organize the maintenance actions. Combining these tools into an integrated process allows the development of an energy critical equipment strategy. Thus, asset and energy management can use the same common data to improve the energy efficiency.

Keywords: Process Control, Data Management, Energy Efficiency, Energy Analysis, crossover technologies

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2 Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves

Authors: R. Meier, M. Pander

Abstract:

In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.

Keywords: Elasticity, Process Control, Industry 4.0, acoustoelasticity, lamb waves

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1 Auto Tuning of PID Controller for MIMO Processes

Authors: M. J. Lengare, R. H. Chile, L. M. Waghmare, Bhavesh Parmar

Abstract:

One of the most basic functions of control engineers is tuning of controllers. There are always several process loops in the plant necessitate of tuning. The auto tuned Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controllers are designed for applications where large load changes are expected or the need for extreme accuracy and fast response time exists. The algorithm presented in this paper is used for the tuning PID controller to obtain its parameters with a minimum computing complexity. It requires continuous analysis of variation in few parameters, and let the program to do the plant test and calculate the controller parameters to adjust and optimize the variables for the best performance. The algorithm developed needs less time as compared to a normal step response test for continuous tuning of the PID through gain scheduling.

Keywords: Optimization, Process Control, PID Controller, auto tuning, gain scheduling, MIMO Processes

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