Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Polypropylene Related Publications

18 Sustainable Development of Medium Strength Concrete Using Polypropylene as Aggregate Replacement

Authors: Reza Keihani, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi, Timothy James Clacy

Abstract:

Plastic as an environmental burden is a well-rehearsed topic in the research area. This is due to its global demand and destructive impacts on the environment, which has been a significant concern to the governments. Typically, the use of plastic in the construction industry is seen across low-density, non-structural applications due to its diverse range of benefits including high strength-to-weight ratios, manipulability and durability. It can be said that with the level of plastic consumption experienced in the construction industry, an ongoing responsibility is shown for this sector to continually innovate alternatives for application of recycled plastic waste such as using plastic made replacement from polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl and polypropylene in the concrete mix design. In this study, the impact of partially replaced fine aggregate with polypropylene in the concrete mix design was investigated to evaluate the concrete’s compressive strength by conducting an experimental work which comprises of six concrete mix batches with polypropylene replacements ranging from 0.5 to 3.0%. The results demonstrated a typical decline in the compressive strength with the addition of plastic aggregate, despite this reduction generally mitigated as the level of plastic in the concrete mix increased. Furthermore, two of the six plastic-containing concrete mixes tested in the current study exceeded the ST5 standardised prescribed concrete mix compressive strength requirement at 28-days containing 1.50% and 2.50% plastic aggregates, which demonstrated the potential for use of recycled polypropylene in structural applications, as a partial by mass, fine aggregate replacement in the concrete mix.

Keywords: Concrete, Sustainability, Polypropylene, compressive strength

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17 A Dynamic Mechanical Thermal T-Peel Test Approach to Characterize Interfacial Behavior of Polymeric Textile Composites

Authors: J. R. Büttler, T. Pham

Abstract:

Basic understanding of interfacial mechanisms is of importance for the development of polymer composites. For this purpose, we need techniques to analyze the quality of interphases, their chemical and physical interactions and their strength and fracture resistance. In order to investigate the interfacial phenomena in detail, advanced characterization techniques are favorable. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) using a rheological system is a sensitive tool. T-peel tests were performed with this system, to investigate the temperature-dependent peel behavior of woven textile composites. A model system was made of polyamide (PA) woven fabric laminated with films of polypropylene (PP) or PP modified by grafting with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH). Firstly, control measurements were performed with solely PP matrixes. Polymer melt investigations, as well as the extensional stress, extensional viscosity and extensional relaxation modulus at -10°C, 100 °C and 170 °C, demonstrate similar viscoelastic behavior for films made of PP-g-MAH and its non-modified PP-control. Frequency sweeps have shown that PP-g-MAH has a zero phase viscosity of around 1600 Pa·s and PP-control has a similar zero phase viscosity of 1345 Pa·s. Also, the gelation points are similar at 2.42*104 Pa (118 rad/s) and 2.81*104 Pa (161 rad/s) for PP-control and PP-g-MAH, respectively. Secondly, the textile composite was analyzed. The extensional stress of PA66 fabric laminated with either PP-control or PP-g-MAH at -10 °C, 25 °C and 170 °C for strain rates of 0.001 – 1 s-1 was investigated. The laminates containing the modified PP need more stress for T-peeling. However, the strengthening effect due to the modification decreases by increasing temperature and at 170 °C, just above the melting temperature of the matrix, the difference disappears. Independent of the matrix used in the textile composite, there is a decrease of extensional stress by increasing temperature. It appears that the more viscous is the matrix, the weaker the laminar adhesion. Possibly, the measurement is influenced by the fact that the laminate becomes stiffer at lower temperatures. Adhesive lap-shear testing at room temperature supports the findings obtained with the T-peel test. Additional analysis of the textile composite at the microscopic level ensures that the fibers are well embedded in the matrix. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of a cross section of the composite shows no gaps between the fibers and matrix. Measurements of the water contact angle show that the MAH grafted PP is more polar than the virgin-PP, and that suggests a more favorable chemical interaction of PP-g-MAH with PA, compared to the non-modified PP. In fact, this study indicates that T-peel testing by DMTA is a technique to achieve more insights into polymeric textile composites.

Keywords: Textile Composite, Polypropylene, polyamide, interphase, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, T-peel test

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16 Extended Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coated Polypropylene Films Containing Zataria multiflora Essential Oil

Authors: S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films containing Zataria multiflora (ZEO) essential oils (4%) as an antimicrobial packaging for chicken breast stored at 4 °C. To increase PP film hydrophilicity, it was treated by atmospheric cold plasma prior to coating by CMC. Then, different films including PP, PP/CMC, PP/CMC containing 4% of ZEO were used for the chicken meat packaging in vapor phase. Total viable count and pseudomonads population and oxidative (TBA) changes of the chicken breast were analyzed during shelf life. Results showed that the shelf life of chicken meat kept in films containing ZEO improved from three to nine days compared to the control sample without any direct contact with the film. Study of oxygen barrier properties of bilayer film without essential oils (0.096 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) in comparison with PP film (416 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) shows that coating of PP with CMC significantly reduces oxygen permeation of the obtained packaging (P<0.05), which reduced aerobic bacteria growth. Chemical composition of ZEO was also evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and this shows that thymol was the main antimicrobial and antioxidant component of the essential oil. The results revealed that PP/CMC containing ZEO has good potential for application as active food packaging in indirect contact which would also improve sensory properties of product.

Keywords: Shelf Life, Essential Oil, Polypropylene, carboxymethyl cellulose, chicken breast

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15 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xin Li, Dan Zhao, Xiaodong Xu, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin

Abstract:

Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: functionalization, Polypropylene, hemocompatibility, chiral monomer

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14 Effect of Chemical Modifier on the Properties of Polypropylene (PP) / Coconut Fiber (CF) in Automotive Application

Authors: K. Shahril, A. Nizam, M. Sabri, A. Siti Rohana, H. Salmah

Abstract:

Chemical modifier (Acrylic Acid) is used as filler treatment to improve mechanical properties and swelling behavior of polypropylene/coconut fiber (PP/CF) composites by creating more adherent bonding between CF filler and PP Matrix. Treated (with chemical modifier) and untreated (without chemical modifier) composites were prepared in the formulation of 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, and 40 wt%. The mechanical testing indicates that composite with 10 wt% of untreated composite has the optimum value of tensile strength, and the composite with chemical modifier shows the tensile strength was increased. By increasing of filler loading, elastic modulus was increased while the elongation at brake was decreased. Meanwhile, the swelling test discerned that the increase of filler loading increased the water absorption of composites and the presence of chemical modifier reduced the equilibrium water absorption percentage.

Keywords: Composites, Ethanol, Polypropylene, coconut fiber, acid acrylic, chemical modifier

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13 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Mechanical Properties, Melt Processing, Polypropylene, nanoclay, polyamide

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12 Effect of Modified Layered Silicate Nanoclay on the Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the structure–property relationship in ternary nanocomposites consisting of polypropylene as the matrix, polyamide 66 as the minor phase and treated nanoclay DELLITE 67G as the reinforcement. All PP/PA66/Nanoclay systems with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride PP-g-MAH as a compatibilizer were prepared via melt compounding and characterized in terms of nanoclay content. Morphological structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The rheological behavior of the nanocomposites was determined by various methods, viz melt flow index (MFI) and parallel plate rheological measurements. The PP/PP-g-MAH/PA66 nanocomposites showed a homogeneous morphology supporting the compatibility improvement between PP, PA66, and nanoclay. SEM results revealed the formation of nanocomposites as the nanoclay was intercalated and exfoliated. In the ternary nanocomposites, the rheological behavior showed that, the complex viscosity is increased with increasing the nanoclay. The results showed that the use of nanoclay affects the variations of storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″) and the melt elasticity.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Rheology, Polypropylene, polyamide66, modified nanoclay

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11 A Pull-out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites: The Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay

Abstract:

This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find that a molding temperature of 183◦C leads to better interfacial properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: Processing, Interface, Composite, temperature, Polypropylene, pull-out, hemp

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10 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and PE-ionomer nanocomposite samples were prepared by mixing of the polymer with organofilized montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of each modified montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5% (w/w). The twin-screw kneader was used for the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nanofillers. The level of MMT exfoliation was studied by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The mechanical properties of prepared materials were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis at 30°C and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: nanocomposite, Polyethylene, Clay, Polypropylene, montmorillonite, Polyethylene (vinyl acetate)

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9 Thermal Stability and Crystallization Behaviour of Modified ABS/PP Nanocomposites

Authors: Marianna I. Triantou, Petroula A. Tarantili

Abstract:

In this research work, poly (acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene)/ polypropylene (ABS/PP) blends were processed by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. Upgrading of the thermal characteristics of the obtained materials was attempted by the incorporation of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT), as well as, by the addition of two types of compatibilizers; polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) and ABS grafted with maleic anhydride (ABS-g-MAH). The effect of the above treatments was investigated separately and in combination. Increasing the PP content in ABS matrix seems to increase the thermal stability of their blend and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of SAN phase of ABS. From the other part, the addition of ABS to PP promotes the formation of its β-phase, which is maximum at 30 wt% ABS concentration, and increases the crystallization temperature (Tc) of PP. In addition, it increases the crystallization rate of PP.The β-phase of PP in ABS/PP blends is reduced by the addition of compatibilizers or/and organoclay reinforcement. The incorporation of compatibilizers increases the thermal stability of PP and reduces its melting (ΔΗm) and crystallization (ΔΗc) enthalpies. Furthermore it decreases slightly the Tgs of PP and SAN phases of ABS/PP blends. Regarding the storage modulus of the ABS/PP blends, it presents a change in their behavior at about 10°C and return to their initial behavior at ~110°C. The incorporation of OMMT to no compatibilized and compatibilized ABS/PP blends enhances their storage modulus.

Keywords: Polypropylene, compatibilizer, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene terpolymer, organoclay

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8 Rheological and Thermomechanical Properties of Graphene/ABS/PP Nanocomposites

Authors: Marianna I. Triantou, Petroula A. Tarantili, Konstantina I. Stathi

Abstract:

In the present study, the incorporation of graphene into blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer with polypropylene (ABS/PP) was investigated focusing on the improvement of their thermomechanical characteristics and the effect on their rheological behavior. The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder and were characterized by measuring the MFI as well as by performing DSC, TGA and mechanical tests. The addition of graphene to ABS/PP blends tends to increase their melt viscosity, due to the confinement of polymer chains motion. Also, graphene causes an increment of the crystallization temperature (Tc), especially in blends with higher PP content, because of the reduction of surface energy of PP nucleation, which is a consequence of the attachment of PP chains to the surface of graphene through the intermolecular CH-π interaction. Moreover, the above nanofiller improves the thermal stability of PP and increases the residue of thermal degradation at all the investigated compositions of blends, due to the thermal isolation effect and the mass transport barrier effect. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of graphene improves the elastic modulus, because of its intrinsic mechanical characteristics and its rigidity, and this effect is particularly strong in the case of pure PP.

Keywords: Graphene, Polypropylene, blends, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer

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7 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber According to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber. 

Keywords: Fiber Reinforcement, Bond, Polypropylene, macro fiber, shape change

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6 Effects of Coupling Agent and Flame Retardant on the Performances of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: R. Ridzuan, M. D. H. Beg, M. Y. Rosli, M. H. Rohaya, A. A. Astimar S. Samahani, I. Zawawi

Abstract:

Alkali treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres (TEFBF) and untreated EFBF fibers (UEFBF) were incorporated in polypropylene (PP) with and without malic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) and magnesium hydroxide as flame retardant (FR) to produce TEFBF-PP and UEFBF-PP composites by the melt casting method. The composites were characterized by mechanical and burning tests along with a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The significant improvement in flexural modulus (133%) and flame retardant property (60%) of TEFBF-PP composite with MAPP and FR is observed. The improved mechanical property is discussed by the development of encapsulated textures.

Keywords: Polypropylene, flame retardant, mechanical property, Empty fruit bunch fibers

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5 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Jute-Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Salma Siddika, Fayeka Mansura, Mahbub Hasan

Abstract:

The term hybrid composite refers to the composite containing more than one type of fiber material as reinforcing fillers. It has become attractive structural material due to the ability of providing better combination of properties with respect to single fiber containing composite. The eco-friendly nature as well as processing advantage, light weight and low cost have enhanced the attraction and interest of natural fiber reinforced composite. The objective of present research is to study the mechanical properties of jute-coir fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene (PP) composite according to filler loading variation. In the present work composites were manufactured by using hot press machine at four levels of fiber loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %). Jute and coir fibers were utilized at a ratio of (1:1) during composite manufacturing. Tensile, flexural, impact and hardness tests were conducted for mechanical characterization. Tensile test of composite showed a decreasing trend of tensile strength and increasing trend of the Young-s modulus with increasing fiber content. During flexural, impact and hardness tests, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and hardness were found to be increased with increasing fiber loading. Based on the fiber loading used in this study, 20% fiber reinforced composite resulted the best set of mechanical properties.

Keywords: Polypropylene, jute, hybrid composite, Mechanical Properties; Coir

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4 Optimization of Asphalt Binder Modified with PP/SBS/Nanoclay Nanocomposite using Taguchi Method

Authors: Abolghasem Yazdani, Sara Pourjafar

Abstract:

This study has applied the L16 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method to determine the optimized polymeric Nanocomposite asphalt binder. Three control factors are defined as polypropylene plastomer (PP), styrene-butadiene-styrene elastomer (SBS) and Nanoclay. Four level of concentration contents are introduced for prepared asphalt binder samples. all samples were prepared with 4.5% of bitumen 60/70 content. Compressive strength tests were carried out for defining the optimized sample via QUALITEK-4 software. SBS with 3%, PP with 5 % and Nanoclay with 1.5% of concentrations are defined as the optimized Nanocomposite asphalt binders. The confirmation compressive strength and also softening point tests showed that modification of asphalt binders with this method, improved the compressive strength and softening points of asphalt binders up to 55%.

Keywords: Polypropylene, nanoclay, Taguchi method, modified asphalt, SBS

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3 Effect of Mixing Process on Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Concrete Mix Properties

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzalan Napiah, Isa Mohd Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents a research conducted to investigate the effect of mixing process on polypropylene (PP) modified bitumen mixed with well graded aggregate to form modified bituminous concrete mix. Two mode of mixing, namely dry and wet with different concentration of polymer polypropylene was used with 80/100 pen bitumen, to evaluate the bituminous concrete mix properties. Three percentages of polymer varying from 1-3% by the weight of bitumen was used in this study. Three mixes namely control mix, wet mix and dry mix were prepared. Optimum binder content was calculated considering Marshall Stability, flow, air voids and Marshall Quotient at different bitumen content varying from 4% - 6.5% for control, dry and wet mix. Engineering properties thus obtained at the calculated optimum bitumen content revealed that wet mixing process is advantageous in comparison to dry mixing as it increases the stiffness of the mixture with the increase in polymer content in bitumen. Stiffness value for wet mix increases with the increase in polymer content which is beneficial in terms of rutting. 1% PP dry mix also shows enhanced stiffness, with the air void content limited to 4%.The flow behaviour of dry mix doesn't indicate any major difference with the increase in polymer content revealing that polymer acting as an aggregate only without affecting the viscosity of the binder in the mix. Polypropylene (PP) when interacted with 80 pen base bitumen enhances its performance characteristics which were brought about by altered rheological properties of the modified bitumen. The decrease in flow with the increase in binder content reflects the increase in viscosity of binder which induces the plastic flow in the mix. Workability index indicates that wet mix were easy to compact up to desired void ratio in comparison to dry mix samples.

Keywords: Stiffness, Polypropylene, Marshall stability, Marshall Flow, Polymer modified bitumen

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2 Rheological Properties of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Modified Bitumen

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzalan Napiah, Isa Mohd Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents a part of research on the rheological properties of bitumen modified by thermoplastic namely linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) and its interaction with 80 pen base bitumen. As it is known that the modification of bitumen by the use of polymers enhances its performance characteristics but at the same time significantly alters its rheological properties. The rheological study of polymer modified bitumen (PMB) was made through penetration, ring & ball softening point and viscosity test. The results were then related to the changes in the rheological properties of polymer modified bitumen. It was observed that thermoplastic copolymer shows profound effect on penetration rather than softening point. The viscoelastic behavior of polymer modified bitumen depend on the concentration of polymer, mixing temperature, mixing technique, solvating power of base bitumen and molecular structure of polymer used. PP offer better blend in comparison to HDPE and LLDPE. The viscosity of base bitumen was also enhanced with the addition of polymer. The pseudoplastic behavior was more prominent for HDPE and LLDPE than PP. Best results were obtained when polymer concentration was kept below 3%

Keywords: Polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polymer modified bitumen, Linear low densitypolyethylene

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1 Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene and High Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Reinforced with Surface Modified Nano Sized TiO2 Particles

Authors: Mirigul Altan, Huseyin Yildirim

Abstract:

Plastics occupy wide place in the applications of automotive, electronics and house goods. Especially reinforced plastics become popular because of their high strength besides their advantages of low weight and easy manufacturability. In this study, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composites reinforced with surface modified nano titan dioxide (TiO2) particles were investigated. Surface modification was made by coating the nano powders with maleic anhydride grafted styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane, respectively. After surface modification, PP/TiO2 and HDPE/TiO2 composites were obtained by using twin screw extruder at titan dioxide loading of 1 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.%. Effects of surface modification were determined by thermal and morphological analysis. SEBS-g-MA provided bridging effect between TiO2 particles and polymer matrix while silane was effective as a dispersant. Depending on that, homogenous structures without agglomeration were obtained. Mechanical tests were performed on the injection moldings of the composites for obtaining the impact strength, tensile strength, stress at break, elongation and elastic modulus. Reinforced HDPE and PP moldings gave higher tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the rigid structure of TiO2. Slight increment was seen in stress at break. Elongation and impact strength decreased due to the stiffness of the nano titan dioxide.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Polypropylene, high density polyethylene, nano TiO₂

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