Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Polymer Related Publications

12 Investigating the Thermal Characteristics of Reclaimed Solid Waste from a Landfill Site Using Thermogravimetry

Authors: S. M. Al-Salem, G.A. Leeke, H. J. Karam, R. Al-Enzi, A. T. Al-Dhafeeri, J. Wang

Abstract:

Thermogravimetry has been popularized as a thermal characterization technique since the 1950s. It aims at investigating the weight loss against both reaction time and temperature, whilst being able to characterize the evolved gases from the volatile components of the organic material being tested using an appropriate hyphenated analytical technique. In an effort to characterize and identify the reclaimed waste from an unsanitary landfill site, this approach was initiated. Solid waste (SW) reclaimed from an active landfill site in the State of Kuwait was collected and prepared for characterization in accordance with international protocols. The SW was segregated and its major components were identified after washing and air drying. Shredding and cryomilling was conducted on the plastic solid waste (PSW) component to yield a material that is representative for further testing and characterization. The material was subjected to five heating rates (b) with minimal repeatable weight for high accuracy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) following the recommendation of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The TGA yielded thermograms that showed an off-set from typical behavior of commercial grade resin which was attributed to contact of material with soil and thermal/photo-degradation.

Keywords: Plastic, Waste, Pollution, Polymer, Landfill, TGA

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11 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar

Abstract:

Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: Polymer, Gamma Radiation, dosimeter, bromophenol blue

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10 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Polymer, bearing, aerostatic, static stiffness

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9 Environmental Limits of Using Newly Developed Progressive Polymer Protection and Repair Systems

Authors: J. Hodna, B. Dohnalkova, V. Petranek, R. Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the identification of limiting environmental factors of individual industrial floors on which newly developed polymer protection and repair systems with the use of secondary raw materials will be used. These mainly include floors with extreme stresses and special requirements for materials used. In relation to the environment of a particular industrial floor, it is necessary to ensure, for example, chemical stability, resistance to higher temperatures, resistance to higher mechanical stress, etc. for developed materials, which is reflected in the demands for the developed material systems. The paper describes individual environments and, in relation to them, also requirements for individual components of the developed materials and for the developed materials as a whole.

Keywords: Environment, Recycling, Polymer, industrial floors, secondary raw material, limits, protective system

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8 Control of Airborne Aromatic Hydrocarbons over TiO2-Carbon Nanotube Composites

Authors: Joon Y. Lee, Seung H. Shin, Ho H. Chun, Wan K. Jo

Abstract:

Poly vinyl acetate (PVA)-based titania (TiO2)–carbon nanotube composite nanofibers (PVA-TCCNs) with various PVA-to-solvent ratios and PVA-based TiO2 composite nanofibers (PVA-TN) were synthesized using an electrospinning process, followed by thermal treatment. The photocatalytic activities of these nanofibers in the degradation of airborne monocyclic aromatics under visible-light irradiation were examined. This study focuses on the application of these photocatalysts to the degradation of the target compounds at sub-part-per-million indoor air concentrations. The characteristics of the photocatalysts were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. For all the target compounds, the PVA-TCCNs showed photocatalytic degradation efficiencies superior to those of the reference PVA-TN. Specifically, the average photocatalytic degradation efficiencies for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) obtained using the PVA-TCCNs with a PVA-to-solvent ratio of 0.3 (PVA-TCCN-0.3) were 11%, 59%, 89%, and 92%, respectively, whereas those observed using PVA-TNs were 5%, 9%, 28%, and 32%, respectively. PVA-TCCN-0.3 displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency for BTEX, suggesting the presence of an optimal PVA-to-solvent ratio for the synthesis of PVA-TCCNs. The average photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX decreased from 11% to 4%, 59% to 18%, 89% to 37%, and 92% to 53%, respectively, when the flow rate was increased from 1.0 to 4.0 L min1. In addition, the average photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX increased 11% to ~0%, 59% to 3%, 89% to 7%, and 92% to 13%, respectively, when the input concentration increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm. The prepared PVA-TCCNs were effective for the purification of airborne aromatics at indoor concentration levels, particularly when the operating conditions were optimized.

Keywords: Polymer, Nanofiber, mixing ratio, reference photocatalyst

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7 Regulation of Transfer of 137cs by Polymeric Sorbents for Grow Ecologically Sound Biomass

Authors: A. H. Tadevosyan, S. K. Mayrapetyan, N. B. Tavakalyan, K. I. Pyuskyulyan, A. H. Hovsepyan, S. N. Sergeeva

Abstract:

Soil contamination with radiocesium has a long-term radiological impact due to its long physical half-life (30.1 years for 137Cs and 2 years for 134Cs) and its high biological availability. 137Cs causes the largest concerns because of its deleterious effect on agriculture and stock farming, and, thus, human life for decades. One of the important aspects of the problem of contaminated soils remediation is understand of protective actions aimed at the reduction of biological migration of radionuclides in soil-plant system. The most effective way to bind radionuclides is the use of selective sorbents. The proposed research mainly aims to achieve control on transfer of 137Cs in a system growing media – plant due to counter ions variation in the polymeric sorbents. As research object Japanese basil - Perilla frutescens was chosen. Productivity of plants depending on the presence (control-without presence of polymer) and type of polymer material, as well as content of 137Cs in plant material has been determined. The character of different polymers influences on the 137Cs migration in growing media – plant system as well as accumulation in the plants has been cleared up.

Keywords: Polymer, radioceaseum, Japanese basil, soil-plant system

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6 Analysis of Failure Pressures of Composite Cylinders with a Polymer Liner of Type IV CNG Vessels

Authors: A. Hocine, A. Ghouaoula, F. Kara Achira, S.M. Medjdoub

Abstract:

The present study deals with the analysis of the cylindrical part of a CNG storage vessel, combining a plastic liner and an over wrapped filament wound composite. Three kind of polymer are used in the present analysis: High density Polyethylene HDPE, Light low density Polyethylene LLDPE and finally blend of LLDPE/HDPE. The effect of the mechanical properties on the behavior of type IV vessel may be then investigated. In the present paper, the effect of the order of the circumferential winding on the stacking sequence may be then investigated. Based on mechanical considerations, the present model provides an exact solution for stresses and deformations on the cylindrical section of the vessel under thermo-mechanical static loading. The result show a good behavior of HDPE liner compared to the other plastic materials. The presence of circumferential winding angle in the stacking improves the rigidity of vessel by improving the burst pressure.

Keywords: Polymer, filament winding, HDPE, cylindrical vessel, LLDPE, CNG, Liner, Burst pressure

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5 Effects of Mold Surface Roughness on Compressible Flow of Micro-Injection Molding

Authors: Nguyen Q. M. P., Chen X., Lam Y. C., Yue C. Y.

Abstract:

Polymer melt compressibility and mold surface roughness, which are generally ignored during the filling stage of the conventional injection molding, may become increasingly significant in micro injection molding where the parts become smaller. By employing the 2.5D generalized Hele-Shaw model, we presented here the effects of polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness on mold-filling in a micro-thickness cavity. To elucidate the effects of surface roughness, numerical investigations were conducted using a cavity flat plate which has two halves with different surface roughness. This allows the comparison of flow field on two different halves under identical processing conditions but with different roughness. Results show that polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness have effects on mold filling in micro injection molding. There is in shrinkage reduction as the density is increased due to polymer melt compressibility during the filling stage.

Keywords: Polymer, surface roughness, compressible flow, Micro-injection molding

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4 Rheology of Composites with Nature Vegetal Origin Fibers

Authors: J. Bobek, M. Seidl, P. Lenfeld, L. Behálek, A. Ausperger

Abstract:

Conventional materials like glass, wood or metals replacement with polymer materials is still continuing. More simple thus cheaper production is the main reason. However due to high energy and petrochemical prices are polymer prices increasing too. That´s why various kinds of fillers are used to make polymers cheaper. Of course target is to maintain or improve properties of these compounds. In this paper are solved rheology issues of polymers compounded with vegetal origin fibers.

Keywords: Rheology, Polymer, fibers, Vegetal

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3 Migration and Accumulation of Artificial Radionuclides in the System Water-Soil-Plants Depending on Polymers Applying

Authors: Anna H. Tadevosyan, Stepan K. Mayrapetyan, Michael P. Schellenberg, Laura M. Ghalachyan, Albert H. Hovsepyan, Khachatur S. Mayrapetyan

Abstract:

The possibility of radionuclides-related contamination of lands at agricultural holdings defines the necessity to apply special protective measures in plant growing. The aim of researches is to elucidate the influence of polymers applying on biological migration of man-made anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the system water - soil – plant. The tests are being carried out under field conditions with and without application of polymers in root-inhabited media in more radioecological tension zone (with the radius of 7 km from the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant). The polymers on the base of K+, Caµ, KµCaµ ions were tested. Productivity of pepper depending on the presence and type of polymer material, content of artificial radionuclides in waters, soil and plant material has been determined. The character of different polymers influence on the artificial radionuclides migration and accumulation in the system water-soil-plant and accumulation in the plants has been cleared up.

Keywords: Polymer, pepper, accumulation of artificial radionuclides, water-soil-plant system

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2 An Improved Phenomenological Model for Polymer Desorption

Authors: Donna Comissiong, Joanna Sooknanan

Abstract:

We propose a phenomenological model for the process of polymer desorption. In so doing, we omit the usual theoretical approach of incorporating a fictitious viscoelastic stress term into the flux equation. As a result, we obtain a model that captures the essence of the phenomenon of trapping skinning, while preserving the integrity of the experimentally verified Fickian law for diffusion. An appropriate asymptotic analysis is carried out, and a parameter is introduced to represent the speed of the desorption front. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the desorption dynamics of the model. Recommendations are made for future modifications of the model, and provisions are made for the inclusion of experimentally determined frontal speeds.

Keywords: Polymer, Desorption, Phenomenological Model, Trapping Skinning

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1 Twin-Screw Extruder and Effective Parameters on the HDPE Extrusion Process

Authors: M. Torabi Angaji, Z. Gholami, S. A. Razavi Alavi

Abstract:

In the process of polyethylene extrusion polymer material similar to powder or granule is under compression, melting and transmission operation and on base of special form, extrudate has been produced. Twin-screw extruders are applicable in industries because of their high capacity. The powder mixing with chemical additives and melting with thermal and mechanical energy in three zones (feed, compression and metering zone) and because of gear pump and screw's pressure, converting to final product in latest plate. Extruders with twin-screw and short distance between screws are better than other types because of their high capacity and good thermal and mechanical stress. In this paper, process of polyethylene extrusion and various tapes of extruders are studied. It is necessary to have an exact control on process to producing high quality products with safe operation and optimum energy consumption. The granule size is depending on granulator motor speed. Results show at constant feed rate a decrease in granule size was found whit Increase in motor speed. Relationships between HDPE feed rate and speed of granulator motor, main motor and gear pump are calculated following as: x = HDPE feed flow rate, yM = Main motor speed yM = (-3.6076e-3) x^4+ (0.24597) x^3+ (-5.49003) x^2+ (64.22092) x+61.66786 (1) x = HDPE feed flow rate, yG = Gear pump speed yG = (-2.4996e-3) x^4+ (0.18018) x^3+ (-4.22794) x^2+ (48.45536) x+18.78880 (2) x = HDPE feed flow rate, y = Granulator motor speed 10th Degree Polynomial Fit: y = a+bx+cx^2+dx^3... (3) a = 1.2751, b = 282.4655, c = -165.2098, d = 48.3106, e = -8.18715, f = 0.84997 g = -0.056094, h = 0.002358, i = -6.11816e-5 j = 8.919726e-7, k = -5.59050e-9

Keywords: Polymer, HDPE, extruder, granule, extrusion, twin-screw extruder

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