Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

piezoelectric Related Publications

15 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, cantilever beam, piezoelectric, microgenerator

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14 Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor

Authors: Vasudha Hegde, Narendra Chaulagain, H. M. Ravikumar, Sonu Mishra, Siva Yellampalli

Abstract:

Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.

Keywords: piezoelectric, natural frequency, acoustic sensor, diaphragm based, lumped element modeling

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13 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, Easa Ali Abbasi, Reza Jahangiri

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: cantilever beam, piezoelectric, electrical current measurement, forced excitation

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12 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng

Abstract:

This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: nozzle, piezoelectric, micro-bubble, oxygenator

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11 Performance Enhancement of Analog Voltage Inverter with Adaptive Gain Control for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Tae-Sam Kang, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Cho

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, piezoelectric, analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, voltage waveform, Gain control

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10 Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micro Pumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, Ming-Yu Lai

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of a novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micro pump with check valve having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. The micro pump is designed to have eight major components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic substrate. A prototype of the gas micro pump, with a size of 52 mm × 50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micro pump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micro pump and the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micro pump obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp. The micro pump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185 ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 120 and 50 Hz.

Keywords: piezoelectric, PDMS, check valve, Micro pump

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9 Piezoelectric Approach on Harvesting Acoustic Energy

Authors: Eng Hwa Yap, Khin Fai Chen, Jee-Hou Ho

Abstract:

An Acoustic Micro-Energy Harvester (AMEH) is developed to convert wasted acoustical energy into useful electrical energy. AMEH is mathematically modeled using Lumped Element Modelling (LEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) modelling. An experiment is designed to validate the mathematical model and assess the feasibility of AMEH. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data on critical parameter value such as Mm, Cms, dm and Ceb showed the variances are within 1% to 6%, which is reasonably acceptable. Then, AMEH undergoes bandwidth tuning for performance optimization. The AMEH successfully produces 0.9V/(m/s^2) and 1.79μW/(m^2/s^4) at 60Hz and 400kΩ resistive load which only show variances about 7% compared to theoretical data. At 1g and 60Hz resonance frequency, the averaged power output is about 2.2mW which fulfilled a range of wireless sensors and communication peripherals power requirements. Finally, the design for AMEH is assessed, validated and deemed as a feasible design.

Keywords: acoustic, piezoelectric, energy harvester, thermoacoustic

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8 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, Tung-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: Actuator, nozzle, piezoelectric, microejector

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7 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has been investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: Performance, Actuator, piezoelectric, unimorph, unimorph.Actuator

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6 Development of a New Piezoelectrically Actuated Micropump for Liquid and Gas

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the design, fabrication and test of a novel piezoelectric actuated, check-valves embedded micropump having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. This device is designed to pump gases and liquids with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump, the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator and the deformation of the check valve, simultaneously. The micropump with check valve 0.4 mm in thickness obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 42.2 ml/min and back pressure of 14.0 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 28 and 20 Hz. The presented micropump is able to pump gases with a pumping rate of 196 ml/min at operating frequencies of 280 Hz under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp.

Keywords: Actuator, check-valve, micropump, piezoelectric

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5 Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems for RFID Applications

Authors: P. Chambe, B. Canova, A. Balabanian, M. Pele, N. Coeur

Abstract:

To avoid battery assisted tags with limited lifetime batteries, it is proposed here to replace them by energy harvesting systems, able to feed from local environment. This would allow total independence to RFID systems, very interesting for applications where tag removal from its location is not possible. Example is here described for luggage safety in airports, and is easily  extendable to similar situation in terms of operation constraints. The idea is to fix RFID tag with energy harvesting system not only to identify luggage but also to supply an embedded microcontroller with a sensor delivering luggage weight making it impossible to add or to remove anything from the luggage during transit phases. The aim is to optimize the harvested energy for such RFID applications, and to study in which limits these applications are theoretically possible. Proposed energy harvester is based on two energy sources: piezoelectricity and electromagnetic waves, so that when the luggage is moving on ground transportation to airline counters, the piezo module supplies the tag and its microcontroller, while the RF module operates during luggage transit thanks to readers located along the way. Tag location on the luggage is analyzed to get best vibrations, as well as harvester better choice for optimizing the energy supply depending on applications and the amount of energy harvested during a period of time. Effects of system parameters (RFID UHF frequencies, limit distance between the tag and the antenna necessary to harvest energy, produced voltage and voltage threshold) are discussed and working conditions for such system are delimited.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, piezoelectric, RFID tag, EM waves

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4 Modified Buck Boost Circuit for Linear and Non-Linear Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

Authors: I Made Darmayuda, Chai Tshun Chuan Kevin, Je Minkyu

Abstract:

Plenty researches have reported techniques to harvest energy from piezoelectric transducer. In the earlier years, the researches mainly report linear energy harvesting techniques whereby interface circuitry is designed to have input impedance that match with the impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In recent years non-linear techniques become more popular. The non-linear technique employs voltage waveform manipulation to boost the available-for-extraction energy at the time of energy transfer.  The fact that non-linear energy extraction provides larger available-for-extraction energy doesn’t mean the linear energy extraction is completely obsolete. In some scenarios, such as where initial power is not available, linear energy extraction is still preferred. A modified Buck Boost circuit which is capable of harvesting piezoelectric energy using both linear and non-linear techniques is reported in this paper. Efficiency of at least 64% can be achieved using this circuit. For linear extraction, the modified Buck Boost circuit is controlled using a fix frequency and duty cycle clock. A voltage sensor and a pulse generator are added as the controller for the non-linear extraction technique. 

Keywords: piezoelectric, energy harvester, Buck boost, linear energy harvester, non-linear energy harvester, synchronized charge extraction

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3 Transfer Function of Piezoelectric Material

Authors: A. Oonsivilai, C. Worakitjaroenphon

Abstract:

The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.

Keywords: Stability, transfer function, piezoelectric, S-Domain

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2 Effects of Electric Potential on Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Hollow Cylinder under Non-Axisymmetric Loads

Authors: Amir Atrian, Javad Jafari Fesharaki, Gh. Hossein Majzoobi, Mahsa Sheidaee

Abstract:

The analytical solution of functionally graded piezoelectric hollow cylinder which is under radial electric potential and non-axisymmetric thermo-mechanical loads, are presented in this paper. Using complex Fourier series and estimation of power law for variations of material characterizations through the thickness, the electro thermo mechanical behavior of the FGPM cylinder is obtained. The stress and displacement distributions and the effect of electric potential field on the cylinder behavior are also presented and some applicable results are offered at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Analytical, Fourier Series, FGM, piezoelectric, Non-axisymmetric, Thermo-elasticity

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1 Free Vibration Analysis of Smart FGM Plates

Authors: F.Ebrahimi, A.Rastgo

Abstract:

Analytical investigation of the free vibration behavior of circular functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with two uniformly distributed actuator layers made of piezoelectric (PZT4) material on the top and bottom surfaces of the circular FG plate based on the classical plate theory (CPT) is presented in this paper. The material properties of the functionally graded substrate plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents and the distribution of electric potential field along the thickness direction of piezoelectric layers is simulated by a quadratic function. The differential equations of motion are solved analytically for clamped edge boundary condition of the plate. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and Numerical investigations are performed for FG plates with two surface-bonded piezoelectric layers. Emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of varying the gradient index of FG plate on the free vibration characteristics of the structure. The results are verified by those obtained from threedimensional finite element analyses.

Keywords: piezoelectric, CPT, functionally graded, Circular plate

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