Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

PID Related Publications

20 Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles

Authors: S. Gokul Prassad, S. Aakash, K. Malar Mohan

Abstract:

In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.

Keywords: Control System, MATLAB, PID, PSO, automobile suspension

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19 Modelling for Temperature Non-Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Nasser Mohamed Ramli, Mohamad Syafiq Mohamad

Abstract:

Many types of controllers were applied on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) unit to control the temperature. In this research paper, Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller are compared with Fuzzy Logic controller for temperature control of CSTR. The control system for temperature non-isothermal of a CSTR will produce a stable response curve to its set point temperature. A mathematical model of a CSTR using the most general operating condition was developed through a set of differential equations into S-function using MATLAB. The reactor model and S-function are developed using m.file. After developing the S-function of CSTR model, User-Defined functions are used to link to SIMULINK file. Results that are obtained from simulation and temperature control were better when using Fuzzy logic control compared to PID control.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, temperature, PID, CSTR

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18 Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor

Authors: Ersan Aktas, Eren Turanoğuz

Abstract:

In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.

Keywords: Control Architectures, UAS Applications, PID, quadrotor

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17 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Lillie Dewan, Khaing Yadana Swe

Abstract:

At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the superheating temperature (main steam temperature). As Main Steam Temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy cannot achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) - P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, Cascade Control, PID, Model free Adaptive Control

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16 Control Analysis Using Tuning Methods for a Designed, Developed and Modeled Cross Flow Water Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Shaival H. Nagarsheth, Utpal Pandya, Hemant J. Nagarsheth

Abstract:

Cross flow water tube heat exchanger can be designed and made operational using methods of model building and simulation of the system. This paper projects the design and development of a model of cross flow water tube heat-exchanger system, simulation and validation of control analysis of different tuning methods. Feedback and override control system is developed using inputs acquired with the help of sensory system. A mathematical model is formulated for analysis of system behaviour. The temperature is regulated at the desired set point automatically.

Keywords: Feedback, temperature, heat exchanger, PID, Override

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15 An Analytical Comparison between Open Loop, PID and Fuzzy Logic Based DC-DC Boost Convertor

Authors: Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani

Abstract:

This paper explains about the voltage output for DC to DC boost converter between open loop, PID controller and fuzzy logic controller through Matlab Simulink. Simulink input voltage was set at 12V and the voltage reference was set at 24V. The analysis on the deviation of voltage resulted that the difference between reference voltage setting and the output voltage is always lower. Comparison between open loop, PID and FLC shows that, the open loop circuit having a bit higher on the deviation of voltage. The PID circuit boosts for FLC has a lesser deviation of voltage and proved that it is such a better performance on control the deviation of voltage during the boost mode.

Keywords: Power Electronics, PID, open loop, Fuzzy logic, Boost Convertors

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14 Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller with D-Q-O Reference Frame Technique Based Active Power Filter

Authors: Kavala Kiran Kumar, R. Govardhana Rao

Abstract:

Active power filter continues to be a powerful tool to control harmonics in power systems thereby enhancing the power quality. This paper presents a fuzzy tuned PID controller based shunt active filter to diminish the harmonics caused by non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifiers and imbalanced loads. Here Fuzzy controller provides the tuning of PID, based on firing of thyristor bridge rectifiers and variations in input rms current. The shunt APF system is implemented with three phase current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and is connected at the point of common coupling for compensating the current harmonics by injecting equal but opposite filter currents. These controllers are capable of controlling dc-side capacitor voltage and estimating reference currents. Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC) is used to generate switching signals for the voltage source inverter. Simulation studies are carried out with non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifier along with unbalanced loads and the results proved that the APF along with fuzzy tuned PID controller work flawlessly for different firing angles of non linear load.

Keywords: PID, total harmonic distortion (THD), Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Active power filters (APF), Hysteresis current controller (HCC), Voltage source inverter (VSI)

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13 Design of Adaptive Controller Based On Lyapunov Stability for a CSTR

Authors: S. Anbu, N. Jaya

Abstract:

Nonlinearity is the inherent characteristics of all the industrial processes. The Classical control approach used for a generation often fails to show better results particularly for non-linear systems and in the systems, whose parameters changes over a period of time for a variety of reasons. Alternatively, adaptive control strategies provide very good performance. The Model Reference Adaptive Control based on Lyapunov stability analysis and classical PI control strategies are designed and evaluated for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which shows appreciable dynamic nonlinear characteristics.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, PID, lyapunov stability, CSTR, MRAS

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12 Fuzzy Based Stabilizer Control System for Quad-Rotor

Authors: K. C. R. Perera, B. G. Sampath, V. P. C. Dassanayake, W. A. S. I. Wijesuriya

Abstract:

In this paper the design, development and testing of a stabilizer control system for a Quad-rotor is presented which is focused on the maneuverability. The mechanical design is performed along with the design of the controlling algorithm which is devised using fuzzy logic controller. The inputs for the system are the angular positions and angular rates of the Quad-rotor relative to three axes. Then the output data is filtered from an accelerometer and a gyroscope through a Kalman filter. In the development of the stability controlling system Mandani fuzzy model is incorporated. The results prove that the fuzzy based stabilizer control system is superior in high dynamic disturbances compared to the traditional systems which use PID integrated stabilizer control systems.

Keywords: fuzzy stabilizer, maneuverability, PID, quad-rotor

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11 Gas Turbine Optimal PID Tuning by Genetic Algorithm using MSE

Authors: A. Oonsivilai, R. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Realistic systems generally are systems with various inputs and outputs also known as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). Such systems usually prove to be complex and difficult to model and control purposes. Therefore, decomposition was used to separate individual inputs and outputs. A PID is assigned to each individual pair to regulate desired settling time. Suitable parameters of PIDs obtained from Genetic Algorithm (GA), using Mean of Squared Error (MSE) objective function.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Gas Turbine, PID, Transfer function.Mean of Squared Error

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10 Performance Comparison between Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and PD-PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum System

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. A. Ahmad

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to compare the time specification performance between conventional controller PID and modern controller SMC for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum-s angle and cart-s position. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. Two controllers are presented such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Proportional- Integral-Derivatives (PID) controllers for controlling the highly nonlinear system of inverted pendulum model. Simulation study has been done in Matlab Mfile and simulink environment shows that both controllers are capable to control multi output inverted pendulum system successfully. The result shows that Sliding Mode Control (SMC) produced better response compared to PID control strategies and the responses are presented in time domain with the details analysis.

Keywords: PID, SMC, Inverted Pendulum System

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9 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. A. Ahmad

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot

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8 FPGA Based Longitudinal and Lateral Controller Implementation for a Small UAV

Authors: Hafiz ul Azad, Dragan V.Lazic, Waqar Shahid

Abstract:

This paper presents implementation of attitude controller for a small UAV using field programmable gate array (FPGA). Due to the small size constrain a miniature more compact and computationally extensive; autopilot platform is needed for such systems. More over UAV autopilot has to deal with extremely adverse situations in the shortest possible time, while accomplishing its mission. FPGAs in the recent past have rendered themselves as fast, parallel, real time, processing devices in a compact size. This work utilizes this fact and implements different attitude controllers for a small UAV in FPGA, using its parallel processing capabilities. Attitude controller is designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The discrete version of this controller is implemented using pipelining followed by retiming, to reduce the critical path and thereby clock period of the controller datapath. Pipelined, retimed, parallel PID controller implementation is done using rapidprototyping and testing efficient development tool of “system generator", which has been developed by Xilinx for FPGA implementation. The improved timing performance enables the controller to react abruptly to any changes made to the attitudes of UAV.

Keywords: PID, retiming, field programmable gate array (FPGA), pipelining, Hardwaredescriptive Language (HDL), XilinxSystem Generator

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7 PID Controller Design for Following Control of Hard Disk Drive by Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method

Authors: Numsomran A., Chaoraingern J., Trisuwannawat T.

Abstract:

The author present PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive by characteristic ratio assignment method. The study in this paper concerns design of a PID controller which sufficiently robust to the disturbances and plant perturbations on following control of hard disk drive. Characteristic Ratio Assignment (CRA) is shown to be an efficient control technique to serve this requirement. The controller design by CRA is based on the choice of the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system according to the convenient performance criteria such as equivalent time constant and ration of characteristic coefficient. Hence, in this study, CRA method is applied in PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive. Matlab simulation results shown that CRA design is fairly stable and robust whilst giving the convenience in controller-s parameters adjustment.

Keywords: PID, hard disk drive, CRA, Following Control

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6 Comparative Analysis of Different Control Strategies for Electro-hydraulic Servo Systems

Authors: Ismail Algelli Sassi Ehtiwesh, Željko Đurović

Abstract:

The main goal of the study is to analyze all relevant properties of the electro hydraulic systems and based on that to make a proper choice of the control strategy that may be used for the control of the servomechanism system. A combination of electronic and hydraulic systems is widely used since it combines the advantages of both. Hydraulic systems are widely spread because of their properties as accuracy, flexibility, high horsepower-to-weight ratio, fast starting, stopping and reversal with smoothness and precision, and simplicity of operations. On the other hand, the modern control of hydraulic systems is based on control of the circuit fed to the inductive solenoid that controls the position of the hydraulic valve. Since this circuit may be easily handled by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal with a proper frequency, the combination of electrical and hydraulic systems became very fruitful and usable in specific areas as airplane and military industry. The study shows and discusses the experimental results obtained by the control strategy (classical feedback (PID) & neural network) using MATLAB and SIMULINK [1]. Finally, the special attention was paid to the possibility of neuro-controller design and its application to control of electro-hydraulic systems and to make comparative with classical control.

Keywords: PID, Electro-hydraulic systems, Neural network controller

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5 Control Improvement of a C Sugar Cane Crystallization Using an Auto-Tuning PID Controller Based on Linearization of a Neural Network

Authors: S. Beyou, B. Grondin-Perez, M. Benne, C. Damour, J.-P. Chabriat

Abstract:

The industrial process of the sugar cane crystallization produces a residual that still contains a lot of soluble sucrose and the objective of the factory is to improve its extraction. Therefore, there are substantial losses justifying the search for the optimization of the process. Crystallization process studied on the industrial site is based on the “three massecuites process". The third step of this process constitutes the final stage of exhaustion of the sucrose dissolved in the mother liquor. During the process of the third step of crystallization (Ccrystallization), the phase that is studied and whose control is to be improved, is the growing phase (crystal growth phase). The study of this process on the industrial site is a problem in its own. A control scheme is proposed to improve the standard PID control law used in the factory. An auto-tuning PID controller based on instantaneous linearization of a neural network is then proposed.

Keywords: Neural Network, PID, auto-tuning, Instantaneous linearization, Non linear process, C-crystallisation

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4 Digital Power Management Hardware Realization Using FPGA

Authors: T. Hui Teo, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, Kar Foo Chong, Andreas Lee Astuti

Abstract:

This paper describes design of a digital feedback loop for a low switching frequency dc-dc switching converters. Low switching frequencies were selected in this design. A look up table for the digital PID (proportional integrator differentiator) compensator was implemented using Altera Stratix II with built-in ADC (analog-to-digital converter) to achieve this hardware realization. Design guidelines are given for the PID compensator, high frequency DPWM (digital pulse width modulator) and moving average filter.

Keywords: Power management, FPGA, PID, DC-DC converter

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3 Delay Analysis of Sampled-Data Systems in Hard RTOS

Authors: A. M. Azad, M. Alam, C. M. Hussain

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented the effect of varying time-delays on performance and stability in the single-channel multirate sampled-data system in hard real-time (RT-Linux) environment. The sampling task require response time that might exceed the capacity of RT-Linux. So a straight implementation with RT-Linux is not feasible, because of the latency of the systems and hence, sampling period should be less to handle this task. The best sampling rate is chosen for the sampled-data system, which is the slowest rate meets all performance requirements. RT-Linux is consistent with its specifications and the resolution of the real-time is considered 0.01 seconds to achieve an efficient result. The test results of our laboratory experiment shows that the multi-rate control technique in hard real-time operating system (RTOS) can improve the stability problem caused by the random access delays and asynchronization.

Keywords: PID, sampled-data, Multi-rate, RT-Linux, Servo

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2 Modified Fuzzy PID Control for Networked Control Systems with Random Delays

Authors: Yong-can Cao, Wei-dong Zhang

Abstract:

To deal with random delays in Networked Control System (NCS), Modified Fuzzy PID Controller is introduced in this paper to implement real-time control adaptively. Via adjusting the control signal dynamically, the system performance is improved. In this paper, the design process and the ultimate simulation results are represented. Finally, examples and corresponding comparisons prove the significance of this method.

Keywords: Fuzzy Control, PID, Networked Control System, Random Delays

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1 Design of Robust Fuzzy Logic Power System Stabilizer

Authors: S. A. Taher, A. Shemshadi

Abstract:

Power system stabilizers (PSS) must be capable of providing appropriate stabilization signals over a broad range of operating conditions and disturbance. Traditional PSS rely on robust linear design method in an attempt to cover a wider range of operating condition. Expert or rule-based controllers have also been proposed. Recently fuzzy logic (FL) as a novel robust control design method has shown promising results. The emphasis in fuzzy control design center is around uncertainties in the system parameters & operating conditions. In this paper a novel Robust Fuzzy Logic Power System Stabilizer (RFLPSS) design is proposed The RFLPSS basically utilizes only one measurable Δω signal as input (generator shaft speed). The speed signal is discretized resulting in three inputs to the RFLPSS. There are six rules for the fuzzification and two rules for defuzzification. To provide robustness, additional signal namely, speed are used as inputs to RFLPSS enabling appropriate gain adjustments for the three RFLPSS inputs. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the RFLPSS compared with an optimally designed conventional PSS and discrete mode FLPSS.

Keywords: Robust Control, Fuzzy Logic, Controller Design, PID, Power SystemStabilizer

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