Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Physical Education Related Publications

8 Effective Teaching Pyramid and Its Impact on Enhancing the Participation of Students in Swimming Classes

Authors: Salam M. H. Kareem

Abstract:

Instructional or teaching procedures and their proper sequence are essential for high-quality learning outcomes. These actions are the path that the teacher takes during the learning process after setting the learning objectives. Teachers and specialists in the education field should include teaching procedures with putting in place an effective mechanism for the procedure’s implementation to achieve a logical sequence with the desired output of overall education process. Determining the sequence of these actions may be a strategic process outlined by a strategic educational plan or drawn by teachers with a high level of experience, enabling them to determine those logical procedures. While specific actions may be necessary for a specific form, many Physical Education (PE) teachers can work out on various sports disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of using the teaching sequence of the teaching pyramid in raising the level of enjoyment in swimming classes. Four months later of teaching swimming skills to the control and experimental groups of the study, we figured that using the tools shown in the teaching pyramid with the experimental group led to statistically significant differences in the positive tendencies of students to participate in the swimming classes by using the traditional procedures of teaching and using of successive procedures in the teaching pyramid, and in favor of the teaching pyramid, The students are influenced by enhancing their tendency to participate in swimming classes when the teaching procedures followed are sensitive to individual differences and are based on the element of pleasure in learning, and less positive levels of the tendency of students when using traditional teaching procedures, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform. The level of positive tendencies of students when using successive procedures in the teaching pyramid was increased, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform, because of the high level of motivation and the desire to challenge the self-provided by the teaching pyramid.

Keywords: Physical Education, teaching process, swimming classes, teaching pyramid

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7 Comparative Effect of Self-Myofascial Release as a Warm-Up Exercise on Functional Fitness of Young Adults

Authors: Gopal Chandra Saha, Sumanta Daw

Abstract:

Warm-up is an essential component for optimizing performance in various sports before a physical fitness training session. This study investigated the immediate comparative effect of Self-Myofascial Release through vibration rolling (VR), non-vibration rolling (NVR), and static stretching as a part of a warm-up treatment on the functional fitness of young adults. Functional fitness is a classification of training that prepares the body for real-life movements and activities. For the present study 20male physical education students were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects was ranged from 20-25 years. The functional fitness variables undertaken in the present study were flexibility, muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. Each of the three warm-up protocol was administered on consecutive days, i.e. 24 hr time gap and all tests were administered in the morning. The mean and SD were used as descriptive statistics. The significance of statistical differences among the groups was measured by applying ‘F’-test, and to find out the exact location of difference, Post Hoc Test (Least Significant Difference) was applied. It was found from the study that only flexibility showed significant difference among three types of warm-up exercise. The observed result depicted that VR has more impact on myofascial release in flexibility in comparison with NVR and stretching as a part of warm-up exercise as ‘p’ value was less than 0.05. In the present study, within the three means of warm-up exercises, vibration roller showed better mean difference in terms of NVR, and static stretching exercise on functional fitness of young physical education practitioners, although the results were found insignificant in case of muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. These findings suggest that sports professionals and coaches may take VR into account for designing more efficient and effective pre-performance routine for long term to improve exercise performances. VR has high potential to interpret into an on-field practical application means.

Keywords: Physical Education, self-myofascial release, functional fitness, foam roller

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6 Motor Coordination and Body Mass Index in Primary School Children

Authors: Piotr Olesniewicz, Ingrid Ruzbarska, Martin Zvonar, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Daniel Puciato

Abstract:

Obese children will probably become obese adults, consequently exposed to an increased risk of comorbidity and premature mortality. Body weight may be indirectly determined by continuous development of coordination and motor skills. The level of motor skills and abilities is an important factor that promotes physical activity since early childhood. The aim of the study is to thoroughly understand the internal relations between motor coordination abilities and the somatic development of prepubertal children and to determine the effect of excess body weight on motor coordination by comparing the motor ability levels of children with different body mass index (BMI) values. The data were collected from 436 children aged 7–10 years, without health limitations, fully participating in school physical education classes. Body height was measured with portable stadiometers (Harpenden, Holtain Ltd.), and body mass—with a digital scale (HN-286, Omron). Motor coordination was evaluated with the Kiphard-Schilling body coordination test, Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. The normality test by Shapiro-Wilk was used to verify the data distribution. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant negative association between the dynamic balance and BMI, as well as between the motor quotient and BMI (p<0.01) for both boys and girls. The results showed no effect of gender on the difference in the observed trends. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between normal weight children and their overweight or obese counterparts. Coordination abilities probably play an important role in preventing or moderating the negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight and obesity. At this age, the development of coordination abilities should become a key strategy, targeted at long-term prevention of obesity and the promotion of an active lifestyle in adulthood. Motor performance is essential for implementing a healthy lifestyle in childhood already. Physical inactivity apparently results in motor deficits and a sedentary lifestyle in children, which may be accompanied by excess energy intake and overweight.

Keywords: Physical Education, Childhood, KTK test, psychomotor competence

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5 Interdisciplinary Integrated Physical Education Program Using a Philosophical Approach

Authors: Ellie Abdi, Susana Juniu

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to describe an interdisciplinary teaching program that integrates physical education concepts using a philosophical approach. The presentation includes a review of: a) the philosophy of American education, b) the philosophy of sports and physical education, c) the interdisciplinary physical education program, d) professional development programs, (e) the Success of this physical education program, f) future of physical education. This unique interdisciplinary program has been implemented in an urban school physical education discipline in East Orange, New Jersey for over 10 years.

During the program the students realize that the bodies go through different experiences. The body becomes a place where a child can recognize in an enjoyable way to express and perceive particular feelings or mental states. Children may distinguish themselves to have high abilities in the social or other domains but low abilities in the field of athletics.

The goal of this program for the individuals is to discover new skills, develop and demonstrate age appropriate mastery level at different tasks, therefore the program consists of 9 to 12 sports, including many game. Each successful experience increases the awareness ability. Engaging in sports and physical activities are social movements involving groups of children in situations such as teams, friends, and recreational settings, which serve as a primary socializing agent for teaching interpersonal skills. As a result of this presentation the audience will reflect and explore how to structure a physical education program to integrate interdisciplinary subjects with philosophical concepts.

Keywords: Physical Education, Philosophical Concepts, interdisciplinary disciplines

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4 Worth A Thousand Words – How Drawings Provide Insight into Children-s Attitudes and Perceptions of Physical Education

Authors: Sandy Daley, Sandra Jones, Don Iverson

Abstract:

The benefits of physical activity for children are promoted widely and well understood; however factors which impact on children-s beliefs and attitudes towards physical education need to be explored in more detail. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how primary school children value and perceive their involvement in physical education (PE) classes through the use of drawings. While this type of data collection has been used previously to determine a child-s response to specific health education classes, such as drug education, to the best of our knowledge it has not been used in the context of PE. Results from this study showed that kindergarten children found PE classes fun and engaging. Children in Year 4 and Year 6 were less satisfied with PE classes because of the activities offered, the lack of opportunity to play sport, and perception that teachers did not appear to value this area of the curriculum.

Keywords: Physical Education, attitudes, primary school children, write and draw

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3 Physical Education in the Brazilian Educational Law and National Curriculum Guidelines

Authors: Aline Dessupoio Chaves, Carla N. Luguetti, Michele Viviene Carbinatto

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of Physical Education in two brasilian laws: National Curriculum Guidelines (PCNs) for the Elementary and Middle School Levels and the Guidelines and Basis Legislation (LDB). The method used was the survey analysis in order to determine the practices present in, or the opinions of, a specific population. The instrument used in this research was a questionnaire. After a broad review of the bibliography and according to the methodological procedures, the aim was to set the relationships between the Principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of Physical Education, according to the Brazilian Law (LDB) and National Curriculum Guidelines (PCNs) in a table made under the analysis of a group of specialists. As the relation between the principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of School Physical Education have shown, we can state that School Physical Education has gained pedagogical security for the potential use of Educational Sport as part of its contents.

Keywords: Education, Physical Education, Educational sport

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2 Where has All the Physical Education Gone? Results of a Generalist Primary Schools Teachers- Survey on Teaching Physical Education

Authors: Vicki Cowley, Michael J. Hamlin, Michael Grimley

Abstract:

Concerns about low levels of children-s physical activity and motor skill development, prompted the Ministry of Education to trial a physical activity pilot project (PAPP) in 16 New Zealand primary schools. The project comprised professional development and training in physical education for lead teachers and introduced four physical activity coordinators to liaise with and increase physical activity opportunities in the pilot schools. A survey of generalist teachers (128 baseline, 155 post-intervention) from these schools looked at timetabled physical activity sessions and issues related to teaching physical education. The authors calculated means and standard deviations of data relating to timetabled PE sessions and used a one-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences. Results indicated time devoted to physical activity related subjects significantly increased over the course of the intervention. Teacher-s reported improved confidence and competence, which resulted in an improvement in quality physical education delivered more often.

Keywords: Teaching, Physical Education, Children, primary school

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1 Spatio-Temporal Orientation Development during the Physical Education Class, with 5th and 6th Form Pupils

Authors: Constantin Pehoiu

Abstract:

School physical education, through its objectives and contents, efficiently valorizes the pupils- abilities, developing them, especially the coordinative skill component, which is the basis of movement learning, of the development of the daily motility and also of the special, refined motility required by the practice of certain sports. Medium school age offers the nervous and motor substratum needed for the acquisition of complex motor habits, a substratum that is essential for the coordinative skill. Individuals differ as to the level at which this function is performed, the extent to which this function turns an individual into a person that is adapted and adaptable to complex and various situations. Spatio-temporal orientation, together with movement combination and coupling, and with kinesthetic, balance, motor reaction, movement transformation and rhythm differentiation form the coordinative skills. From our viewpoint, these are characteristic features with high levels of manifestation in a complex psychomotor act - valorizing the quality of one-s talent - as well as indices pertaining to one-s psychomotor intelligence and creativity.

Keywords: Development, Physical Education, lesson, spatio-temporal orientation

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