Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Path Planning Related Publications

15 Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Using Harmonic Functions via Modified Arithmetic Mean Iterative Method

Authors: Jumat Sulaiman, Azali Saudi

Abstract:

Harmonic functions are solutions to Laplace’s equation that are known to have an advantage as a global approach in providing the potential values for autonomous vehicle navigation. However, the computation for obtaining harmonic functions is often too slow particularly when it involves very large environment. This paper presents a two-stage iterative method namely Modified Arithmetic Mean (MAM) method for solving 2D Laplace’s equation. Once the harmonic functions are obtained, the standard Gradient Descent Search (GDS) is performed for path finding of an autonomous vehicle from arbitrary initial position to the specified goal position. Details of the MAM method are discussed. Several simulations of vehicle navigation with path planning in a static known indoor environment were conducted to verify the efficiency of the MAM method. The generated paths obtained from the simulations are presented. The performance of the MAM method in computing harmonic functions in 2D environment to solve path planning problem for an autonomous vehicle navigation is also provided.

Keywords: Path Planning, Laplace’s equation, Modified Arithmetic Mean method, Harmonic functions

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14 Fast Return Path Planning for Agricultural Autonomous Terrestrial Robot in a Known Field

Authors: Pedro D. Gaspar, Martim L. Aguiar, Carlo Cernicchiaro

Abstract:

The agricultural sector is becoming more critical than ever in view of the expected overpopulation of the Earth. The introduction of robotic solutions in this field is an increasingly researched topic to make the most of the Earth's resources, thus going to avoid the problems of wear and tear of the human body due to the harsh agricultural work, and open the possibility of a constant careful processing 24 hours a day. This project is realized for a terrestrial autonomous robot aimed to navigate in an orchard collecting fallen peaches below the trees. When it receives the signal indicating the low battery, it has to return to the docking station where it will replace its battery and then return to the last work point and resume its routine. Considering a preset path in orchards with tree rows with variable length by which the robot goes iteratively using the algorithm D*. In case of low battery, the D* algorithm is still used to determine the fastest return path to the docking station as well as to come back from the docking station to the last work point. MATLAB simulations were performed to analyze the flexibility and adaptability of the developed algorithm. The simulation results show an enormous potential for adaptability, particularly in view of the irregularity of orchard field, since it is not flat and undergoes modifications over time from fallen branch as well as from other obstacles and constraints. The D* algorithm determines the best route in spite of the irregularity of the terrain. Moreover, in this work, it will be shown a possible solution to improve the initial points tracking and reduce time between movements.

Keywords: Autonomous, Path Planning, fastest return path, docking station, agricultural terrestrial robot

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13 A Review on Comparative Analysis of Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms

Authors: Pushpendra S. Bharti, Divya Agarwal

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.

Keywords: Path Planning, Autonomous Mobile Robots, obstacle avoidance, and processing time

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12 Application of Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart and G2 Quintic Pythagorean Hodograph Curves to the UAV Path Planning Problem

Authors: Luiz G. Véras, Felipe L. Medeiros, Lamartine F. Guimarães

Abstract:

This work approaches the automatic planning of paths for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) through the application of the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart (RRT*-Smart) algorithm. RRT*-Smart is a sampling process of positions of a navigation environment through a tree-type graph. The algorithm consists of randomly expanding a tree from an initial position (root node) until one of its branches reaches the final position of the path to be planned. The algorithm ensures the planning of the shortest path, considering the number of iterations tending to infinity. When a new node is inserted into the tree, each neighbor node of the new node is connected to it, if and only if the extension of the path between the root node and that neighbor node, with this new connection, is less than the current extension of the path between those two nodes. RRT*-smart uses an intelligent sampling strategy to plan less extensive routes by spending a smaller number of iterations. This strategy is based on the creation of samples/nodes near to the convex vertices of the navigation environment obstacles. The planned paths are smoothed through the application of the method called quintic pythagorean hodograph curves. The smoothing process converts a route into a dynamically-viable one based on the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. This smoothing method models the hodograph components of a curve with polynomials that obey the Pythagorean Theorem. Its advantage is that the obtained structure allows computation of the curve length in an exact way, without the need for quadratural techniques for the resolution of integrals.

Keywords: Path Planning, path smoothing, RRT*-Smart, Pythagorean hodograph curve

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11 Optimization Based Obstacle Avoidance

Authors: R. Dariani, S. Schmidt, R. Kasper

Abstract:

Based on a non-linear single track model which describes the dynamics of vehicle, an optimal path planning strategy is developed. Real time optimization is used to generate reference control values to allow leading the vehicle alongside a calculated lane which is optimal for different objectives such as energy consumption, run time, safety or comfort characteristics. Strict mathematic formulation of the autonomous driving allows taking decision on undefined situation such as lane change or obstacle avoidance. Based on position of the vehicle, lane situation and obstacle position, the optimization problem is reformulated in real-time to avoid the obstacle and any car crash.

Keywords: Path Planning, Autonomous Driving, obstacle avoidance, Optimal control

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10 Development of Optimized User Interface of Public Transit Navigator for a Smartphone

Authors: Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara, Masaki Ito, Masahiro Taketa

Abstract:

We develop a new interface for Bus-Net which is optimized for a smartphone. We are continuing to develop the shortest path planning system of public transportation called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as web application to improve the usability of public transportation. Recent trend of computing platform, however has shifted to an advanced mobile device called a smartphone such as iPhone and Android in Japan. A smartphone has different characters with existing feature phone in terms of OS, large touche panel, and several other features. We derive a guideline to design the new interface for a smartphone to full use of the functionality. The guideline is about simplicity of user-s operation, location awareness and usability. We developed the new interface for “Bus-Net" on iPhone referring to the guideline. Due to the evaluation, the application interface we developed is better than the existing web-based interface in terms of the usability.

Keywords: Path Planning, public transportation, User Interface, smartphone

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9 Intelligent Path Planning for Rescue Robot

Authors: Sohrab Khanmohammadi, Raana Soltani Zarrin

Abstract:

In this paper, a heuristic method for simultaneous rescue robot path-planning and mission scheduling is introduced based on project management techniques, multi criteria decision making and artificial potential fields path-planning. Groups of injured people are trapped in a disastrous situation. These people are categorized into several groups based on the severity of their situation. A rescue robot, whose ultimate objective is reaching injured groups and providing preliminary aid for them through a path with minimum risk, has to perform certain tasks on its way towards targets before the arrival of rescue team. A decision value is assigned to each target based on the whole degree of satisfaction of the criteria and duties of the robot toward the target and the importance of rescuing each target based on their category and the number of injured people. The resulted decision value defines the strength of the attractive potential field of each target. Dangerous environmental parameters are defined as obstacles whose risk determines the strength of the repulsive potential field of each obstacle. Moreover, negative and positive energies are assigned to the targets and obstacles, which are variable with respects to the factors involved. The simulation results show that the generated path for two cases studies with certain differences in environmental conditions and other risk factors differ considerably.

Keywords: Path Planning, Artificial potential field, GERT

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8 Development of User Interface for Multiple Devices Connecting Path Planning System for Bus Network

Authors: Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara, Toshihiko Sasama, Takahiro Takayama

Abstract:

Recently, web services to access from many type devices are often used. We have developed the shortest path planning system called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as a web application to sustain the public transport. And it used the same user interface for both devices. To support both devices, the interface cannot use JavaScript and so on. Thus, we developed the method that use individual user interface for each device type to improve its convenience. To be concrete, we defined formats of condition input to the path planning system and result output from it and separate the system into the request processing part and user interface parts that depend on device types. By this method, we have also developed special device for Bus-Net named "Intelligent-Bus-Stop".

Keywords: Path Planning, public transport, User Interface, bus

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7 Mobile Robot Path Planning in a 2-Dimentional Mesh

Authors: Doraid Dalalah

Abstract:

A topologically oriented neural network is very efficient for real-time path planning for a mobile robot in changing environments. When using a recurrent neural network for this purpose and with the combination of the partial differential equation of heat transfer and the distributed potential concept of the network, the problem of obstacle avoidance of trajectory planning for a moving robot can be efficiently solved. The related dimensional network represents the state variables and the topology of the robot's working space. In this paper two approaches to problem solution are proposed. The first approach relies on the potential distribution of attraction distributed around the moving target, acting as a unique local extreme in the net, with the gradient of the state variables directing the current flow toward the source of the potential heat. The second approach considers two attractive and repulsive potential sources to decrease the time of potential distribution. Computer simulations have been carried out to interrogate the performance of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Mesh, Path Planning, Potential field

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6 A Valley Detection for Path Planning

Authors: In-Geun Lim, Jin-Soo Kim, Chirl-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents a constrained valley detection algorithm. The intent is to find valleys in the map for the path planning that enables a robot or a vehicle to move safely. The constraint to the valley is a desired width and a desired depth to ensure the space for movement when a vehicle passes through the valley. We propose an algorithm to find valleys satisfying these 2 dimensional constraints. The merit of our algorithm is that the pre-processing and the post-processing are not necessary to eliminate undesired small valleys. The algorithm is validated through simulation using digitized elevation data.

Keywords: Path Planning, width, depth, valley

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5 Mobile Robot Path Planning Utilizing Probability Recursive Function

Authors: Ethar H. Khalil, Bahaa I. Kazem

Abstract:

In this work a software simulation model has been proposed for two driven wheels mobile robot path planning; that can navigate in dynamic environment with static distributed obstacles. The work involves utilizing Bezier curve method in a proposed N order matrix form; for engineering the mobile robot path. The Bezier curve drawbacks in this field have been diagnosed. Two directions: Up and Right function has been proposed; Probability Recursive Function (PRF) to overcome those drawbacks. PRF functionality has been developed through a proposed; obstacle detection function, optimization function which has the capability of prediction the optimum path without comparison between all feasible paths, and N order Bezier curve function that ensures the drawing of the obtained path. The simulation results that have been taken showed; the mobile robot travels successfully from starting point and reaching its goal point. All obstacles that are located in its way have been avoided. This navigation is being done successfully using the proposed PRF techniques.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Path Planning, Bezier curve

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4 Geometry Design Supported by Minimizing and Visualizing Collision in Dynamic Packing

Authors: Johan Segeborn, Johan S. Carlson, Robert Bohlin, Rikard Söderberg

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to support dynamic packing in cases when no collision-free path can be found. The method, which is primarily based on path planning and shrinking of geometries, suggests a minimal geometry design change that results in a collision-free assembly path. A supplementing approach to optimize geometry design change with respect to redesign cost is described. Supporting this dynamic packing method, a new method to shrink geometry based on vertex translation, interweaved with retriangulation, is suggested. The shrinking method requires neither tetrahedralization nor calculation of medial axis and it preserves the topology of the geometry, i.e. holes are neither lost nor introduced. The proposed methods are successfully applied on industrial geometries.

Keywords: Path Planning, Dynamic packing, shrinking

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3 Unknown Environment Representation for Mobile Robot Using Spiking Neural Networks

Authors: Amir Reza Saffari Azar Alamdari

Abstract:

In this paper, a model of self-organizing spiking neural networks is introduced and applied to mobile robot environment representation and path planning problem. A network of spike-response-model neurons with a recurrent architecture is used to create robot-s internal representation from surrounding environment. The overall activity of network simulates a self-organizing system with unsupervised learning. A modified A* algorithm is used to find the best path using this internal representation between starting and goal points. This method can be used with good performance for both known and unknown environments.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Path Planning, Self-Organization, Spiking Neural Networks

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2 Optimal Path Planner for Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M. Imran Akram, Ahmed Pasha, Nabeel Iqbal

Abstract:

In this paper a real-time trajectory generation algorithm for computing 2-D optimal paths for autonomous aerial vehicles has been discussed. A dynamic programming approach is adopted to compute k-best paths by minimizing a cost function. Collision detection is implemented to detect intersection of the paths with obstacles. Our contribution is a novel approach to the problem of trajectory generation that is computationally efficient and offers considerable gain over existing techniques.

Keywords: Path Planning, Dynamic Programming, graph search

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1 Path Planning of a Robot Manipulator using Retrieval RRT Strategy

Authors: E. Kim, K. Oh, J. P. Hwang, H. Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which extends the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) framework to deal with change of the task environments. This algorithm called the Retrieval RRT Strategy (RRS) combines a support vector machine (SVM) and RRT and plans the robot motion in the presence of the change of the surrounding environment. This algorithm consists of two levels. At the first level, the SVM is built and selects a proper path from the bank of RRTs for a given environment. At the second level, a real path is planned by the RRT planners for the given environment. The suggested method is applied to the control of KUKA™,, a commercial 6 DOF robot manipulator, and its feasibility and efficiency are demonstrated via the cosimulatation of MatLab™, and RecurDyn™,.

Keywords: Path Planning, SVM, RRT

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