Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

palm oil Related Publications

6 Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Tattep Techopittayakul, Channarong Asavatesanupap

Abstract:

Biofuel production especially that of biodiesel has gained tremendous attention during the last decade due to environmental concerns and shortage in petroleum oil reservoir. This research aims to investigate the influences of operating parameters, such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, and 9:1) and the amount of catalyst (1, 1.5, and 2 wt.%) on the trans esterification of refined palm oil (RPO) in a medium-scale oscillatory baffle reactor.  It has been shown that an increase in the methanol-to-oil ratio resulted in an increase in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content. The amount of catalyst has an insignificant effect on the FAMEs content. Engine testing was performed on B0 (100 v/v% diesel) and blended fuel or B50 (50 v/v% diesel). Combustion of B50 was found to give lower torque compared to pure diesel. Exhaust gas from B50 was found to contain lower concentration of CO and CO2.

Keywords: Biodiesel, transesterification, palm oil, fatty acid methyl esters, oscillatory baffled reactor

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5 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: rice bran oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, deep-fried dough stick

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4 The Effects of Increasing Unsaturation in Palm Oil and Incorporation of Carbon Nanotubes on Resinous Properties

Authors: Muhammad R. Islam, Mohammad Dalour H. Beg, Saidatul S. Jamari

Abstract:

Considering palm oil as non-drying oil owing to its low iodine value, an attempt was taken to increase the unsaturation in the fatty acid chains of palm oil for the preparation of alkyds. To increase the unsaturation in the palm oil, sulphuric acid (SA) and para-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) was used prior to alcoholysis for the dehydration process. The iodine number of the oil samples was checked for the unsaturation measurement by Wijs method. Alkyd resin was prepared using the dehydrated palm oil by following alcoholysis and esterification reaction. To improve the film properties 0.5wt.% multi-wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were used to manufacture polymeric film. The properties of the resins were characterized by various physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, iodine value, saponification value, etc. Structural elucidation was confirmed by Fourier transform of infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance; surfaces of the films were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope. In addition, pencil hardness and chemical resistivity was also measured by using standard methods. The effect of enhancement of the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain found significant and motivational. The resin prepared with dehydrated palm oil showed improved properties regarding hardness and chemical resistivity testing. The incorporation of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal stability and hardness of the films as well.

Keywords: dehydration, palm oil, alkyd resin, nano-coatings

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3 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: Regression, palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS

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2 Comparison of Physico-Chemical Properties And Fatty Acid Compostion of Elateriospermum Tapos (Buah Perah), Palm Oil And Soybean Oil

Authors: Siti Hamidah, Lee Nian Yian, Azizi Mohd

Abstract:

Elateriospermum tapos seed (buah perah) is the one of the rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It contains high percentage of oleic acid which is the important component to develop nervous system and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) which is the precursor of omega-3 fatty acids series to synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, there is less study about this valuable oilseed and exploit its potential. Therefore, this paper is to assess the comparison of physico-chemical properties and fatty composition of perah oil to palm oil and soybean oil. From the comparison, perah oil shows low peroxide value means it has good oxidative stability and also high iodine values shows that it can be used in paint industry. The study shown that perah oil is comparable to palm oil and soybean oil, so it has high potential to be exploited in the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and paint industries.

Keywords: soybean oil, palm oil, α-linolenic acid, perah oil

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1 Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.

Keywords: palm oil, interesterification, Carica papaya lipase, cocoa butter equivalent

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