Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Optimal Control Related Publications

36 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto, Takashi Shimizu

Abstract:

Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Process Control, Optimal Control, Model Predictive Control, crystal growth

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35 Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, feedback control systems using random dither quantizers have been proposed for linear discrete-time systems. However, the constraints imposed on state and control variables have not yet been taken into account for the design of feedback control systems with random dither quantization. Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. An important advantage of model predictive control is its ability to handle constraints imposed on state and control variables. Based on the model predictive control approach, the objective of this paper is to present a control method that satisfies probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither quantization. In other words, this paper provides a method for solving the optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither quantization.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Stochastic systems, probabilistic constraints, random dither quantization, discrete-time systems

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34 Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System

Authors: Ayad Al-Mahturi, Herman Wahid

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Particle Swarm Optimization, PSO, linear quadratic regulator, LQR controller, two-rotor aero-dynamical system, TRAS

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33 Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recent technological advance has prompted significant interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems. Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic disturbances.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Quantum Systems, Stochastic systems, Stabilization

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32 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints

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31 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan

Abstract:

Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Optimal Control, decentralized, output, singular perturb

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30 Conservativeness of Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Method for Unknown Probability Distribution

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

In recent decades, probabilistic constrained optimal control problems have attracted much attention in many research fields. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in an optimization problem, several tractable methods haven been proposed to handle probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are reduced to deterministic constraints that are tractable in an optimization problem. However, there is a gap between the transformed deterministic constraints in case of known and unknown probability distribution. This paper examines the conservativeness of probabilistic constrained optimization method for unknown probability distribution. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative assessment of the conservatism for tractable constraints in probabilistic constrained optimization with unknown probability distribution.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Stochastic systems, probabilistic constraints, discrete-time systems

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29 Computational Simulations on Stability of Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-time Stochastic Systems

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and a moving terminal time. This paper examines the stability of model predictive control for linear discrete-time systems with additive stochastic disturbances. A sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop system with model predictive control is derived by means of a linear matrix inequality. The objective of this paper is to show the results of computational simulations in order to verify the effectiveness of the obtained stability condition.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Stochastic systems, computational simulations, discrete-time systems, predictive control

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28 Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based On Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Asyieh Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential (VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The properties of Legendre wavelet together with Gaussian integration method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.

Keywords: Optimal Control, collocation method, Legendre wavelet, Volterra integro-differential equation

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27 Adaptive Dynamic Time Warping for Variable Structure Pattern Recognition

Authors: S. V. Yendiyarov

Abstract:

Pattern discovery from time series is of fundamental importance. Particularly, when information about the structure of a pattern is not complete, an algorithm to discover specific patterns or shapes automatically from the time series data is necessary. The dynamic time warping is a technique that allows local flexibility in aligning time series. Because of this, it is widely used in many fields such as science, medicine, industry, finance and others. However, a major problem of the dynamic time warping is that it is not able to work with structural changes of a pattern. This problem arises when the structure is influenced by noise, which is a common thing in practice for almost every application. This paper addresses this problem by means of developing a novel technique called adaptive dynamic time warping.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Optimal Control, Dynamic Programming, dynamic time warping, quadratic programming, sintering control

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26 Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation

Authors: Marian Gaiceanu, Emil Rosu

Abstract:

In this paper the optimal control strategy for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization, maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive. The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Matlab/Simulink, space vector PWM, Riccati equation, permanent magnet synchronous motor

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25 Expert System for Sintering Process Control based on the Information about solid-fuel Flow Composition

Authors: Yendiyarov Sergei, Zobnin Boris, Petrushenko Sergei

Abstract:

Usually, the solid-fuel flow of an iron ore sinter plant consists of different types of the solid-fuels, which differ from each other. Information about the composition of the solid-fuel flow usually comes every 8-24 hours. It can be clearly seen that this information cannot be used to control the sintering process in real time. Due to this, we propose an expert system which uses indirect measurements from the process in order to obtain the composition of the solid-fuel flow by solving an optimization task. Then this information can be used to control the sintering process. The proposed technique can be successfully used to improve sinter quality and reduce the amount of solid-fuel used by the process.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Particle Swarm Optimization, Expert System, sintering process, solid-fuel

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24 An Improved Optimal Sliding Mode Control for Structural Stability

Authors: Leila Fatemi, Morteza Moradi, Azadeh Mansouri

Abstract:

In this paper, the modified optimal sliding mode control with a proposed method to design a sliding surface is presented. Because of the inability of the previous approach of the sliding mode method to design a bounded and suitable input, the new variation is proposed in the sliding manifold to obviate problems in a structural system. Although the sliding mode control is a powerful method to reject disturbances and noises, the chattering problem is not good for actuators. To decrease the chattering phenomena, the optimal control is added to the sliding mode control. Not only the proposed method can decline the intense variations in the inputs of the system but also it can produce the efficient responses respect to the sliding mode control and optimal control that are shown by performing some numerical simulations.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Structural Control, optimal sliding mode controller, modified sliding surface

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23 Nonlinear Optimal Line-Of-Sight Stabilization with Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling

Authors: A. Puras Trueba, J. R. Llata García

Abstract:

A nonlinear optimal controller with a fuzzy gain scheduler has been designed and applied to a Line-Of-Sight (LOS) stabilization system. Use of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory is an optimal and simple manner of solving many control engineering problems. However, this method cannot be utilized directly for multigimbal LOS systems since they are nonlinear in nature. To adapt LQ controllers to nonlinear systems at least a linearization of the model plant is required. When the linearized model is only valid within the vicinity of an operating point a gain scheduler is required. Therefore, a Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System gain scheduler has been implemented, which keeps the asymptotic stability performance provided by the optimal feedback gain approach. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller is capable of overcoming disturbances and maintaining a satisfactory tracking performance.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Gimbal, Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling, Line-Of-SightStabilization, LQR

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22 Optimal Control of Piezo-Thermo-Elastic Beams

Authors: Marwan Abukhaled, Ibrahim Sadek

Abstract:

This paper presents the vibrations suppression of a thermoelastic beam subject to sudden heat input by a distributed piezoelectric actuators. An optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of a quadratic functional in terms of displacement and velocity at a given time and with the least control effort. The solution method is based on a combination of modal expansion and variational approaches. The modal expansion approach is used to convert the optimal control of distributed parameter system into the optimal control of lumped parameter system. By utilizing the variational approach, an explicit optimal control law is derived and the determination of the corresponding displacement and velocity is reduced to solving a set of ordinary differential equations.

Keywords: Optimal Control, variational approach, Thermoelastic beam, modal expansion approach

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21 A New Approach to the Approximate Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

Authors: Joe Imae, Kenjiro Shinagawa, Tomoaki Kobayashi, Guisheng Zhai

Abstract:

We propose a new approach on how to obtain the approximate solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. The process of the approximation consists of two steps. The first step is to transform the HJ equations into the virtual time based HJ equations (VT-HJ) by introducing a new idea of ‘virtual-time’. The second step is to construct the approximate solutions of the HJ equations through a computationally iterative procedure based on the VT-HJ equations. It should be noted that the approximate feedback solutions evolve by themselves as the virtual-time goes by. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approximation approach by means of simulations with linear and nonlinear control problems.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Nonlinear Control, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, Virtual-Time

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20 Modeling and Simulation of Robotic Arm Movement using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga, Jasjit Kaur, R. Kumar, Y. Singh

Abstract:

In this research paper we have presented control architecture for robotic arm movement and trajectory planning using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). This architecture is used to compensate the uncertainties like; movement, friction and settling time in robotic arm movement. The genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic is used to meet the objective of optimal control movement of robotic arm. This proposed technique represents a general model for redundant structures and may extend to other structures. Results show optimal angular movement of joints as result of evolutionary process. This technique has edge over the other techniques as minimum mathematics complexity used.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Kinematics, Genetic algorithms (GAs), Fuzzy logic(FL)

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19 Optimal Control of a Linear Distributed Parameter System via Shifted Legendre Polynomials

Authors: Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

Abstract:

The optimal control problem of a linear distributed parameter system is studied via shifted Legendre polynomials (SLPs) in this paper. The partial differential equation, representing the linear distributed parameter system, is decomposed into an n - set of ordinary differential equations, the optimal control problem is transformed into a two-point boundary value problem, and the twopoint boundary value problem is reduced to an initial value problem by using SLPs. A recursive algorithm for evaluating optimal control input and output trajectory is developed. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple. An illustrative example is given to show the simplicity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Linear Systems, Optimal Control, distributed parametersystems, Legendre polynomials

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18 An Optimal Control Problem for Rigid Body Motions on Lie Group SO(2, 1)

Authors: Nemat Abazari, Ilgin Sager

Abstract:

In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimize the integral of the square norm of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Rigid Body Motion, maximum principle, Hamiltonian vector field, Darboux vector, lie group, Lorentz metric

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17 Planning Rigid Body Motions and Optimal Control Problem on Lie Group SO(2, 1)

Authors: Nemat Abazari, Ilgin Sager

Abstract:

In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimizes the integral of the Lorentz inner product of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Rigid Body Motion, maximum principle, Hamiltonian vector field, Darboux vector, lie group, Lorentz metric

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16 Harmonics Elimination in Multilevel Inverter Using Linear Fuzzy Regression

Authors: A. K. Al-Othman, H. A. Al-Mekhaizim

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters supplied from equal and constant dc sources almost don-t exist in practical applications. The variation of the dc sources affects the values of the switching angles required for each specific harmonic profile, as well as increases the difficulty of the harmonic elimination-s equations. This paper presents an extremely fast optimal solution of harmonic elimination of multilevel inverters with non-equal dc sources using Tanaka's fuzzy linear regression formulation. A set of mathematical equations describing the general output waveform of the multilevel inverter with nonequal dc sources is formulated. Fuzzy linear regression is then employed to compute the optimal solution set of switching angles.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Harmonics, Multilevel Converters, pulse widthmodulation (PWM)

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15 A Study of the Change of Damping Coefficient Regarding Minimum Displacement

Authors: Tawiwat V., Narongkorn D., Auttapoom L.

Abstract:

This research proposes the change of damping coefficient regarding minimum displacement. From the mass with external forced and damper problem, when is the constant external forced transmitted to the understructure in the difference angle between 30 and 60 degrees. This force generates the vibration as general known; however, the objective of this problem is to have minimum displacement. As the angle is changed and the goal is the same; therefore, the damper of the system must be varied while keeping constant spring stiffness. The problem is solved by using nonlinear programming and the suitable changing of the damping coefficient is provided.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Damping coefficient, Minimum Displacement and Vibration

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14 Minimum Energy of a Prismatic Joint with out: Actuator: Application on RRP Robot

Authors: Kedit J., Tawiwat V., Tosapolporn P.

Abstract:

This research proposes the state of art on how to control or find the trajectory paths of the RRP robot when the prismatic joint is malfunction. According to this situation, the minimum energy of the dynamic optimization is applied. The RRP robot or similar systems have been used in many areas such as fire fighter truck, laboratory equipment and military truck for example a rocket launcher. In order to keep on task that assigned, the trajectory paths must be computed. Here, the open loop control is applied and the result of an example show the reasonable solution which can be applied to the controllable system.

Keywords: Optimal Control, RRP robot, Minimum Energy and Under Actuator

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13 Two Stage Control Method Using a Disturbance Observer and a Kalman Filter

Authors: Yoshihisa Ishida, Hiromitsu Ogawa, Manato Ono, Naohiro Ban

Abstract:

This paper describes the two stage control using a disturbance observer and a Kalman filter. The system feedback uses the estimated state when it controls the speed. After the change-over point, its feedback uses the controlled plant output when it controls the position. To change the system continually, a change-over point has to be determined pertinently, and the controlled plant input has to be adjusted by the addition of the appropriate value. The proposed method has noise-reduction effect. It changes the system continually, even if the controlled plant identification has the error. Although the conventional method needs a speed sensor, the proposed method does not need it. The proposed method has a superior robustness compared with the conventional two stage control.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Kalman Filter, disturbance observer, two stage control

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12 Controllability of Efficiency of Antiviral Therapy in Hepatitis B Virus Infections

Authors: Shyam S.N. Perera

Abstract:

An optimal control problem for a mathematical model of efficiency of antiviral therapy in hepatitis B virus infections is considered. The aim of the study is to control the new viral production, block the new infection cells and maintain the number of uninfected cells in the given range. The optimal controls represent the efficiency of antiviral therapy in inhibiting viral production and preventing new infections. Defining the cost functional, the optimal control problem is converted into the constrained optimization problem and the first order optimality system is derived. For the numerical simulation, we propose the steepest descent algorithm based on the adjoint variable method. A computer program in MATLAB is developed for the numerical simulations.

Keywords: Optimal Control, steepest descent, Adjoint system, Virus infection model

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11 Optimal Control of Viscoelastic Melt Spinning Processes

Authors: Shyam S.N. Perera

Abstract:

The optimal control problem for the viscoelastic melt spinning process has not been reported yet in the literature. In this study, an optimal control problem for a mathematical model of a viscoelastic melt spinning process is considered. Maxwell-Oldroyd model is used to describe the rheology of the polymeric material, the fiber is made of. The extrusion velocity of the polymer at the spinneret as well as the velocity and the temperature of the quench air and the fiber length serve as control variables. A constrained optimization problem is derived and the first–order optimality system is set up to obtain the adjoint equations. Numerical solutions are carried out using a steepest descent algorithm. A computer program in MATLAB is developed for simulations.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Fiber spinning, Maxwell-Oldroyd, First-order optimality system, Adjoint system

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10 HIV Treatment Planning on a case-by-CASE Basis

Authors: Marios M. Hadjiandreou, Raul Conejeros, Ian Wilson

Abstract:

This study presents a mathematical modeling approach to the planning of HIV therapies on an individual basis. The model replicates clinical data from typical-progressors to AIDS for all stages of the disease with good agreement. Clinical data from rapid-progressors and long-term non-progressors is also matched by estimation of immune system parameters only. The ability of the model to reproduce these phenomena validates the formulation, a fact which is exploited in the investigation of effective therapies. The therapy investigation suggests that, unlike continuous therapy, structured treatment interruptions (STIs) are able to control the increase in both the drug-sensitive and drug-resistant virus population and, hence, prevent the ultimate progression from HIV to AIDS. The optimization results further suggest that even patients characterised by the same progression type can respond very differently to the same treatment and that the latter should be designed on a case-by-case basis. Such a methodology is presented here.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Chemotherapy, AIDS, Optimal Control, progression

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9 An Innovative Approach to the Formulation of Connection Admission Control Problem

Authors: Carlo Bruni, Francesco Delli Priscoli, Giorgio Koch, Ilaria Marchetti

Abstract:

This paper proposes an innovative approach for the Connection Admission Control (CAC) problem. Starting from an abstract network modelling, the CAC problem is formulated in a technology independent fashion allowing the proposed concepts to be applied to any wireless and wired domain. The proposed CAC is decoupled from the other Resource Management procedures, but cooperates with them in order to guarantee the desired QoS requirements. Moreover, it is based on suitable performance measurements which, by using proper predictors, allow to forecast the domain dynamics in the next future. Finally, the proposed CAC control scheme is based on a feedback loop aiming at maximizing a suitable performance index accounting for the domain throughput, whilst respecting a set of constraints accounting for the QoS requirements.

Keywords: Network Management, Optimal Control, Quality of Service (QoS) requirements

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8 Optimal Control Strategy for High Performance EV Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Mehdi Karbalaye Zadeh, Ehsan M. Siavashi

Abstract:

The controllable electrical loss which consists of the copper loss and iron loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. The control algorithm of current vector minimizing the electrical loss is proposed and the optimal current vector can be decided according to the operating speed and the load conditions. The proposed control algorithm is applied to the experimental PM motor drive system and this paper presents a modern approach of speed control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) applied for Electric Vehicle using a nonlinear control. The regulation algorithms are based on the feedback linearization technique. The direct component of the current is controlled to be zero which insures the maximum torque operation. The near unity power factor operation is also achieved. More over, among EV-s motor electric propulsion features, the energy efficiency is a basic characteristic that is influenced by vehicle dynamics and system architecture. For this reason, the EV dynamics are taken into account.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Electric Vehicle, traction, PMSM

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7 Hybrid Modeling and Optimal Control of a Two-Tank System as a Switched System

Authors: H. Mahboubi, B. Moshiri, A. Khaki Seddigh

Abstract:

In the past decade, because of wide applications of hybrid systems, many researchers have considered modeling and control of these systems. Since switching systems constitute an important class of hybrid systems, in this paper a method for optimal control of linear switching systems is described. The method is also applied on the two-tank system which is a much appropriate system to analyze different modeling and control techniques of hybrid systems. Simulation results show that, in this method, the goals of control and also problem constraints can be satisfied by an appropriate selection of cost function.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Optimal Control, Switched Systems, two-tank system

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