Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Observability Related Publications

9 A Genetic Algorithm Approach Considering Zero Injection Bus Constraint Modeling for Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

Authors: G. Chandana Sushma, T. R. Jyothsna

Abstract:

This paper presents optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Placement in network using a genetic algorithm approach as it is infeasible and require high installation cost to place PMUs at every bus in network. This paper proposes optimal PMU allocation considering observability and redundancy utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The nonlinear constraints of buses are modeled to give accurate results. Constraints associated with Zero Injection (ZI) buses and radial buses are modeled to optimize number of locations for PMU placement. GA is modeled with ZI bus constraints to minimize number of locations without losing complete observability. Redundancy of every bus in network is computed to show optimum redundancy of complete system network. The performance of method is measured by Bus Observability Index (BOI) and Complete System Observability Performance Index (CSOPI). MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE -14, -30 and -57 bus-systems and compared with other methods in literature survey to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, redundancy, phasor measurement units, Constraints, Observability, zero injection bus, synchrophasors

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8 State Estimation Solution with Optimal Allocation of Phasor Measurement Units Considering Zero Injection Bus Modeling

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, M. Ravindra, V. Shanmukha Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents state estimation with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) allocation to obtain complete observability of network. A matrix is designed with modeling of zero injection constraints to minimize PMU allocations. State estimation algorithm is developed with optimal allocation of PMUs to find accurate states of network. The incorporation of PMU into traditional state estimation process improves accuracy and computational performance for large power systems. The nonlinearity integrated with zero injection (ZI) constraints is remodeled to linear frame to optimize number of PMUs. The problem of optimal PMU allocation is regarded with modeling of ZI constraints, PMU loss or line outage, cost factor and redundant measurements. The proposed state estimation with optimal PMU allocation has been compared with traditional state estimation process to show its importance. MATLAB programming on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus networks is implemented out by Binary Integer Programming (BIP) method and compared with other methods to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: phasor measurement units, Observability, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus, synchrophasors

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7 Dynamic State Estimation with Optimal PMU and Conventional Measurements for Complete Observability

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, M. Ravindra

Abstract:

This paper presents a Generalized Binary Integer Linear Programming (GBILP) method for optimal allocation of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and to generate Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) solution with complete observability. The GBILP method is formulated with Zero Injection Bus (ZIB) constraints to reduce the number of locations for placement of PMUs in the case of normal and single line contingency. The integration of PMU and conventional measurements is modeled in DSE process to estimate accurate states of the system. To estimate the dynamic behavior of the power system with proposed method, load change up to 40% considered at a bus in the power system network. The proposed DSE method is compared with traditional Weighted Least Squares (WLS) state estimation method in presence of load changes to show the impact of PMU measurements. MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus systems to prove the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: phasor measurement units, Observability, State Estimation, PMU, dynamic state estimation, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus

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6 Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation

Authors: X. Wang, W. Du, Jun Cao, H. F. Wang

Abstract:

Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.

Keywords: Observability, Wind Farms, frequency regulation, virtual inertia control, installation locations

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5 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: S. P. Singh, Satyendra Pratap Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: Observability, gravitational search algorithm (GSA), law of gravity, phasor measurement unit, Law of Motion

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4 On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility

Authors: Sallem F., Dahhou B., Kamoun A.

Abstract:

In this work, the main problem considered is the  detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of  the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator  fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation  of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in  cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the  conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability  conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An  example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation  illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault  diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.

 

Keywords: Nuclear Reactor, Fault Detection, Observability, actuator fault, left invertibility, parameter intervals, system inversion

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3 Identifying the Kinematic Parameters of Hexapod Machine Tool

Authors: M. M. Agheli, M. J. Nategh

Abstract:

Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT) is a parallel robot mostly based on Stewart platform. Identification of kinematic parameters of HMT is an important step of calibration procedure. In this paper an algorithm is presented for identifying the kinematic parameters of HMT using inverse kinematics error model. Based on this algorithm, the calibration procedure is simulated. Measurement configurations with maximum observability are decided as the first step of this algorithm for a robust calibration. The errors occurring in various configurations are illustrated graphically. It has been shown that the boundaries of the workspace should be searched for the maximum observability of errors. The importance of using configurations with sufficient observability in calibrating hexapod machine tools is verified by trial calibration with two different groups of randomly selected configurations. One group is selected to have sufficient observability and the other is in disregard of the observability criterion. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed identification algorithm.

Keywords: Observability, Calibration, parallel robot, Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT), InverseKinematics Error Model, ParameterIdentification

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2 COTT – A Testability Framework for Object-Oriented Software Testing

Authors: A. Goel, S.C. Gupta, S.K.Wasan

Abstract:

Testable software has two inherent properties – observability and controllability. Observability facilitates observation of internal behavior of software to required degree of detail. Controllability allows creation of difficult-to-achieve states prior to execution of various tests. In this paper, we describe COTT, a Controllability and Observability Testing Tool, to create testable object-oriented software. COTT provides a framework that helps the user to instrument object-oriented software to build the required controllability and observability. During testing, the tool facilitates creation of difficult-to-achieve states required for testing of difficultto- test conditions and observation of internal details of execution at unit, integration and system levels. The execution observations are logged in a test log file, which are used for post analysis and to generate test coverage reports.

Keywords: Controllability, Observability, Test Coverage and Testing Tool

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1 A Self Adaptive Genetic Based Algorithm for the Identification and Elimination of Bad Data

Authors: A. A. Hossam-Eldin, E. N. Abdallah, M. S. El-Nozahy

Abstract:

The identification and elimination of bad measurements is one of the basic functions of a robust state estimator as bad data have the effect of corrupting the results of state estimation according to the popular weighted least squares method. However this is a difficult problem to handle especially when dealing with multiple errors from the interactive conforming type. In this paper, a self adaptive genetic based algorithm is proposed. The algorithm utilizes the results of the classical linearized normal residuals approach to tune the genetic operators thus instead of making a randomized search throughout the whole search space it is more likely to be a directed search thus the optimum solution is obtained at very early stages(maximum of 5 generations). The algorithm utilizes the accumulating databases of already computed cases to reduce the computational burden to minimum. Tests are conducted with reference to the standard IEEE test systems. Test results are very promising.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Observability, Bad Data, Linearized Normal residuals, Power System State Estimation

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