Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

numerical model Related Publications

14 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi

Abstract:

Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.

Keywords: Rock Mass, numerical model, deformation modulus, plate loading test

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13 Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging

Authors: M. Wu, H. Barati, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig

Abstract:

A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.

Keywords: Simulation, nozzle, numerical model, clogging

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12 Analysis of a Coupled Hydro-Sedimentological Numerical Model for the Tombolo of GIENS

Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Leandri, Pierre Liardet

Abstract:

The western Tombolo of the Giens peninsula in southern France, known as Almanarre beach, is subject to coastal erosion. We are trying to use computer simulation in order to propose solutions to stop this erosion. Our aim was first to determine the main factors for this erosion and successfully apply a coupled hydrosedimentological numerical model based on observations and measurements that have been performed on the site for decades. We have gathered all available information and data about waves, winds, currents, tides, bathymetry, coastal line, and sediments concerning the site. These have been divided into two sets: one devoted to calibrating a numerical model using Mike 21 software, the other to serve as a reference in order to numerically compare the present situation to what it could be if we implemented different types of underwater constructions. This paper presents the first part of the study: selecting and melting different sources into a coherent data basis, identifying the main erosion factors, and calibrating the coupled software model against the selected reference period. Our results bring calibration of the numerical model with good fitting coefficients. They also show that the winter South-Western storm events conjugated to depressive weather conditions constitute a major factor of erosion, mainly due to wave impact in the northern part of the Almanarre beach. Together, current and wind impact is shown negligible.

Keywords: Coastal Erosion, numerical model, Almanarre beach, hydro-sedimentological

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11 Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators

Authors: Paul Dallyn, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Alessandro Palmeri, Bob Knight

Abstract:

In order to better understand the long term implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plainsided grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions experienced over a given period, thus limiting the requirement for expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.

Keywords: Wind energy, Wear, numerical model, grouted connection, Offshore Structure

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10 Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff

Abstract:

Recently, permeable breakwaters have been suggested to overcome the disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. These protection structures have minor impacts on the coastal environment and neighboring beaches where they provide a more economical protection from waves and currents. For regular waves, a numerical model is used (FLOW-3D, VOF) to investigate the hydraulic performance of a permeable breakwater. The model of permeable breakwater consists of a pair of identical vertical slotted walls with an impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at distant of 0.5 and 1.5 of the water depth from the first one. The numerical model is validated by comparisons with previous laboratory data and semi-analytical results of the same model. A good agreement between the numerical results and both laboratory data and semi-analytical results has been shown and the results indicate the applicability of the numerical model to reproduce most of the important features of the interaction. Through the numerical investigation, the friction factor of the model is carefully discussed.

Keywords: Coastal Structures, numerical model, permeable breakwater, energy dissipation coefficient, slotted wall

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9 Comparative Study on Status and Development of Transient Flow Analysis Including Simple Surge Tank

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar

Abstract:

This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Transient analysis is important and one of the more challenging and complicated flow problem in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient can produce large pressure forces and rapid fluid acceleration into a water pipeline system, these disturbances may result in device failures, system fatigue or pipe ruptures, and even the dirty water intrusion. Several methods have been introduced and used to analyze transient flow, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic method. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the simple surge tank ”open surge tank” reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Protection devices, Pipeline, numerical model, Flow transient, Elastic method, Rigid column method, Open surge tank

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8 Characterization of Printed Reflectarray Elements on Variable Substrate Thicknesses

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, Arslan Kiyani

Abstract:

Narrow bandwidth and high loss performance limits the use of reflectarray antennas in some applications. This article reports on the feasibility of employing strategic reflectarray resonant elements to characterize the reflectivity performance of reflectarrays in X-band frequency range. Strategic reflectarray resonant elements incorporating variable substrate thicknesses ranging from 0.016λ to 0.052λ have been analyzed in terms of reflection loss and reflection phase performance. The effect of substrate thickness has been validated by using waveguide scattering parameter technique. It has been demonstrated that as the substrate thickness is increased from 0.508mm to 1.57mm the measured reflection loss of dipole element decreased from 5.66dB to 3.70dB with increment in 10% bandwidth of 39MHz to 64MHz. Similarly the measured reflection loss of triangular loop element is decreased from 20.25dB to 7.02dB with an increment in 10% bandwidth of 12MHz to 23MHz. The results also show a significant decrease in the slope of reflection phase curve as well. A Figure of Merit (FoM) has also been defined for the comparison of static phase range of resonant elements under consideration. Moreover, a novel numerical model based on analytical equations has been established incorporating the material properties of dielectric substrate and electrical properties of different reflectarray resonant elements to obtain the progressive phase distribution for each individual reflectarray resonant element.

Keywords: numerical model, reflectarray resonant elements, scattering parameter measurements, variable substrate thickness

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7 Controlling Transient Flow in Pipeline Systems by Desurging Tank with Automatic Air Control

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar

Abstract:

Desurging tank with automatic air control “DTAAC” is a water hammer protection device, operates either an open or closed surge tank according to the water level inside the surge tank, with the volume of air trapped in the filling phase, this protection device has the advantages of its easy maintenance, and does not need to run any external energy source (air compressor). A computer program has been developed based on the characteristic method to simulate flow transient phenomena in pressurized water pipeline systems, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occurring in this phenomena. The developed model applied to a simple main water pipeline system: pump combined with DTAAC connected to a reservoir.  The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover; using the DTAAC reduces the unfavorable effects of the transients.

Keywords: Protection devices, Pipeline System, numerical model, Flow transient, DTAAC

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6 Simulating Flow Transients in Conveying Pipeline Systems by Rigid Column and Full Elastic Methods: Pump Combined with Air Chamber

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar, A. A. Saber

Abstract:

In water pipeline systems, the flow control is an integrated part of the operation, for instance, opening and closing the valves, starting and stopping the pumps, when these operations very quickly performed, they shall cause the hydraulic transient phenomena, which may cause pump and, valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic methods. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to protect the pipeline systems from damaging due to the gain pressure which occur in the transient state. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Protection devices, Pipeline, numerical model, Flow transient, Air chamber, Elastic method, Rigid column method

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5 Cooling of Fresh Vegetable Farm Produce: Experimental and Numerical Studies

Authors: Hala Yassine, Hervé Noel, Pascal Le Bideau, Patrick Glouannec

Abstract:

Following harvest, fresh produce needs to be cooled immediately in a room where the air temperature and the relative air humidity are controlled to maintain the produce quality. In this paper, an experimental study for forced air cooling of fresh produce (cauliflower) is performed using a pilot developed within our laboratory. Furthermore, a numerical simulation of spherical produces, taking into account the aerodynamic aspect and also the heat transfer in the produce and in the air, was carried out using a finite element method. At the end of this communication, experimental results are presented and compared with the simulation.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, numerical model, cauliflower, Forced air cooling, Tunnel of air

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4 Hydrogeological Risk and Mining Tunnels: the Fontane-Rodoretto Mine Turin (Italy)

Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Laura Scesi, Elena Cerino Adbin, Daniele Cremonesi

Abstract:

The interaction of tunneling or mining with groundwater has become a very relevant problem not only due to the need to guarantee the safety of workers and to assure the efficiency of the tunnel drainage systems, but also to safeguard water resources from impoverishment and pollution risk. Therefore it is very important to forecast the drainage processes (i.e., the evaluation of drained discharge and drawdown caused by the excavation). The aim of this study was to know better the system and to quantify the flow drained from the Fontane mines, located in Val Germanasca (Turin, Italy). This allowed to understand the hydrogeological local changes in time. The work has therefore been structured as follows: the reconstruction of the conceptual model with the geological, hydrogeological and geological-structural study; the calculation of the tunnel inflows (through the use of structural methods) and the comparison with the measured flow rates; the water balance at the basin scale. In this way it was possible to understand what are the relationships between rainfall, groundwater level variations and the effect of the presence of tunnels as a means of draining water. Subsequently, it the effects produced by the excavation of the mining tunnels was quantified, through numerical modeling. In particular, the modeling made it possible to observe the drawdown variation as a function of number, excavation depth and different mines linings.

Keywords: Groundwater, Tunneling, Italy, numerical model

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3 Ground Heat Exchanger Modeling Developed for Energy Flows of an Incompressible Fluid

Authors: Georgios Florides, Paul Christodoulides, Panayiotis Pouloupatis, Vassilios Messaritis, Lazaros Lazari

Abstract:

Ground-source heat pumps achieve higher efficiencies than conventional air-source heat pumps because they exchange heat with the ground that is cooler in summer and hotter in winter than the air environment. Earth heat exchangers are essential parts of the ground-source heat pumps and the accurate prediction of their performance is of fundamental importance. This paper presents the development and validation of a numerical model through an incompressible fluid flow, for the simulation of energy and temperature changes in and around a U-tube borehole heat exchanger. The FlexPDE software is used to solve the resulting simultaneous equations that model the heat exchanger. The validated model (through a comparison with experimental data) is then used to extract conclusions on how various parameters like the U-tube diameter, the variation of the ground thermal conductivity and specific heat and the borehole filling material affect the temperature of the fluid.

Keywords: numerical model, incompressible fluid, energy flow, U-tube borehole

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2 Numerical Investigation on Latent Heat Storage Unit of Different Configurations

Authors: Manish K Rathod, Jyotirmay Banerjee

Abstract:

The storage of thermal energy as a latent heat of phase change material (PCM) has created considerable interest among researchers in recent times. Here, an attempt is made to carry out numerical investigations to analyze the performance of latent heat storage units (LHSU) employing phase change material. The mathematical model developed is based on an enthalpy formulation. Freezing time of PCM packed in three different shaped containers viz. rectangular, cylindrical and cylindrical shell is compared. The model is validated with the results available in the literature. Results show that for the same mass of PCM and surface area of heat transfer, cylindrical shell container takes the least time for freezing the PCM and this geometric effect is more pronounced with an increase in the thickness of the shell than that of length of the shell.

Keywords: numerical model, phase change material (PCM), Enthalpy Formulation, Latent heat storage unit(LHSU)

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1 A Conservative Multi-block Algorithm for Two-dimensional Numerical Model

Authors: Yaoxin Zhang, Yafei Jia, Sam S.Y. Wang

Abstract:

A multi-block algorithm and its implementation in two-dimensional finite element numerical model CCHE2D are presented. In addition to a conventional Lagrangian Interpolation Method (LIM), a novel interpolation method, called Consistent Interpolation Method (CIM), is proposed for more accurate information transfer across the interfaces. The consistent interpolation solves the governing equations over the auxiliary elements constructed around the interpolation nodes using the same numerical scheme used for the internal computational nodes. With the CIM, the momentum conservation can be maintained as well as the mass conservation. An imbalance correction scheme is used to enforce the conservation laws (mass and momentum) across the interfaces. Comparisons of the LIM and the CIM are made using several flow simulation examples. It is shown that the proposed CIM is physically more accurate and produces satisfactory results efficiently.

Keywords: Conservation, Interpolation, numerical model, flow simulation, Multi-block algorithm

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