Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Noise Reduction Related Publications

12 CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet

Authors: Amir Moslemi, Amir Movafeghi, Shahab Moradi

Abstract:

One of the most important challenging factors in medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography (CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise reduction in CT images was performed using two different directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure similarity (Ssim).

Keywords: Noise Reduction, computed tomography (CT), curve-let, contour-let, signal to noise peak-peak ratio (PSNR), structure similarity (Ssim), absorbed dose to patient (ADP)

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11 A Novel RLS Based Adaptive Filtering Method for Speech Enhancement

Authors: T. Kishore Kumar, Pogula Rakesh

Abstract:

Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with numerous applications like teleconferencing, VoIP, hearing aids and speech recognition. The motivation behind this research work is to obtain a clean speech signal of higher quality by applying the optimal noise cancellation technique. Real-time adaptive filtering algorithms seem to be the best candidate among all categories of the speech enhancement methods. In this paper, we propose a speech enhancement method based on Recursive Least Squares (RLS) adaptive filter of speech signals. Experiments were performed on noisy data which was prepared by adding AWGN, Babble and Pink noise to clean speech samples at -5dB, 0dB, 5dB and 10dB SNR levels. We then compare the noise cancellation performance of proposed RLS algorithm with existing NLMS algorithm in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE), Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) and SNR Loss. Based on the performance evaluation, the proposed RLS algorithm was found to be a better optimal noise cancellation technique for speech signals.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, RLS, adaptive filter, adaptive noise canceller, NLMS, SNR, SNR loss, Mean Squared Error

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10 Applying a Noise Reduction Method to Reveal Chaos in the River Flow Time Series

Authors: Mohammad H. Fattahi

Abstract:

Chaotic analysis has been performed on the river flow time series before and after applying the wavelet based de-noising techniques in order to investigate the noise content effects on chaotic nature of flow series. In this study, 38 years of monthly runoff data of three gauging stations were used. Gauging stations were located in Ghar-e-Aghaj river basin, Fars province, Iran. Noise level of time series was estimated with the aid of Gaussian kernel algorithm. This step was found to be crucial in preventing removal of the vital data such as memory, correlation and trend from the time series in addition to the noise during de-noising process.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, Wavelet, river flow, chaotic behavior

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9 Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping Algorithm for the Recognition of Isolated Words Impacted by Transient Noise Pulses

Authors: G. Tamulevičius, A. Serackis, T. Sledevič, D. Navakauskas

Abstract:

We consider the biggest challenge in speech recognition – noise reduction. Traditionally detected transient noise pulses are removed with the corrupted speech using pulse models. In this paper we propose to cope with the problem directly in Dynamic Time Warping domain. Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for the recognition of isolated words impacted by transient noise pulses is proposed. It uses simple transient noise pulse detector, employs bidirectional computation of dynamic time warping and directly manipulates with warping results. Experimental investigation with several alternative solutions confirms effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the reduction of impact of noise on recognition process – 3.9% increase of the noisy speech recognition is achieved.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, Noise Reduction, transient noise pulses, dynamic time warping

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8 The Anti-Noise and Anti-Wear Systems for Railways

Authors: Brigita Altenbaher

Abstract:

In recent years there has been a continuous increase of axle loads, tonnage, train speed and train length which has increased both the productivity in the rail sector and the risk of rail breaks and derailments. On the other hand, the environmental requirements (e.g. noise reduction) for railway operations will become tighter in the future. In our research we developed a new composite material which does not change braking properties, is capable of taking extremely high pressure loads, reduces noise and is environmentally friendly. Part of our research was also the development of technology which will be able to apply this material to the rail. The result of our research was the system which reduces the wear out significantly and almost completely eliminates the squealing noise at the same time, and by using only one special material.

Keywords: railway, Noise Reduction, Composite Material, Lubrication, active protection, reduction at source

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7 The Anti-Noise System for Rail Brakes on Hump Yards

Authors: Brigita Altenbaher

Abstract:

The friction between two metal surfaces results in a high frequency noise (squealing) which also occurs during the braking of wagons with rail brakes in the process of shunting at a marshalling yard with a hump. At that point the noise level may exceed 130dB, which is extremely unpleasant for workers and inhabitants. In our research we developed a new composite material which does not change braking properties, is capable of taking extremely high pressure loads, reduces noise and is environmentally friendly. The noise reduction results had been very good and had shown a decrease of the high frequency noise almost completely (by 99%) at its source. With our technology we had also reduced general noise by more than 30dBA.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, Composite heavily fluid compound, hump yard, rail brakes

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6 Maximizer of the Posterior Marginal Estimate for Noise Reduction of JPEG-compressed Image

Authors: Yohei Saika, Yuji Haraguchi

Abstract:

We constructed a method of noise reduction for JPEG-compressed image based on Bayesian inference using the maximizer of the posterior marginal (MPM) estimate. In this method, we tried the MPM estimate using two kinds of likelihood, both of which enhance grayscale images converted into the JPEG-compressed image through the lossy JPEG image compression. One is the deterministic model of the likelihood and the other is the probabilistic one expressed by the Gaussian distribution. Then, using the Monte Carlo simulation for grayscale images, such as the 256-grayscale standard image “Lena" with 256 × 256 pixels, we examined the performance of the MPM estimate based on the performance measure using the mean square error. We clarified that the MPM estimate via the Gaussian probabilistic model of the likelihood is effective for reducing noises, such as the blocking artifacts and the mosquito noise, if we set parameters appropriately. On the other hand, we found that the MPM estimate via the deterministic model of the likelihood is not effective for noise reduction due to the low acceptance ratio of the Metropolis algorithm.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, JPEG-compressed image, Bayesian inference, the maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate

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5 Particle Swarm Optimization Approach on Flexible Structure at Wiper Blade System

Authors: M. Hussein, A. Zolfagharian, M.Z. Md. Zain, A. R. AbuBakar

Abstract:

Application of flexible structures has been significantly, increased in industry and aerospace missions due to their contributions and unique advantages over the rigid counterparts. In this paper, vibration analysis of a flexible structure i.e., automobile wiper blade is investigated and controlled. The wiper generates unwanted noise and vibration during the wiping the rain and other particles on windshield which may cause annoying noise in different ranges of frequency. A two dimensional analytical modeled wiper blade whose model accuracy is verified by numerical studies in literature is considered in this study. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed in alliance with input shaping (IS) technique in order to control or to attenuate the amplitude level of unwanted noise/vibration of the wiper blade.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, input shaping, particle swarmoptimization, wiper blade

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4 An Edge Detection and Filtering Mechanism of Two Dimensional Digital Objects Based on Fuzzy Inference

Authors: Ayman A. Aly, Abdallah A. Alshnnaway

Abstract:

The general idea behind the filter is to average a pixel using other pixel values from its neighborhood, but simultaneously to take care of important image structures such as edges. The main concern of the proposed filter is to distinguish between any variations of the captured digital image due to noise and due to image structure. The edges give the image the appearance depth and sharpness. A loss of edges makes the image appear blurred or unfocused. However, noise smoothing and edge enhancement are traditionally conflicting tasks. Since most noise filtering behaves like a low pass filter, the blurring of edges and loss of detail seems a natural consequence. Techniques to remedy this inherent conflict often encompass generation of new noise due to enhancement. In this work a new fuzzy filter is presented for the noise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of three stages. (1) Define fuzzy sets in the input space to computes a fuzzy derivative for eight different directions (2) construct a set of IFTHEN rules by to perform fuzzy smoothing according to contributions of neighboring pixel values and (3) define fuzzy sets in the output space to get the filtered and edged image. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed approach with two dimensional objects.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, Additive noise, edge preserving filtering, fuzzy image filtering, two dimensional mechanical images

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3 A Novel Fuzzy Technique for Image Noise Reduction

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hameed Reza Pourreza, Hasan Ebrahimi

Abstract:

A new fuzzy filter is presented for noise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of two stages. In the first stage, all the pixels of image are processed for determining noisy pixels. For this, a fuzzy rule based system associates a degree to each pixel. The degree of a pixel is a real number in the range [0,1], which denotes a probability that the pixel is not considered as a noisy pixel. In the second stage, another fuzzy rule based system is employed. It uses the output of the previous fuzzy system to perform fuzzy smoothing by weighting the contributions of neighboring pixel values. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed filter. These results are also compared to other filters by numerical measure and visual inspection.

Keywords: Image Processing, Fuzzy Logic, Noise Reduction, Additive noise

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2 Noise Reduction in Image Sequences using an Effective Fuzzy Algorithm

Authors: Mahmoud Saeidi, Khadijeh Saeidi, Mahmoud Khaleghi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel spatiotemporal fuzzy based algorithm for noise filtering of image sequences. Our proposed algorithm uses adaptive weights based on a triangular membership functions. In this algorithm median filter is used to suppress noise. Experimental results show when the images are corrupted by highdensity Salt and Pepper noise, our fuzzy based algorithm for noise filtering of image sequences, are much more effective in suppressing noise and preserving edges than the previously reported algorithms such as [1-7]. Indeed, assigned weights to noisy pixels are very adaptive so that they well make use of correlation of pixels. On the other hand, the motion estimation methods are erroneous and in highdensity noise they may degrade the filter performance. Therefore, our proposed fuzzy algorithm doesn-t need any estimation of motion trajectory. The proposed algorithm admissibly removes noise without having any knowledge of Salt and Pepper noise density.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, fuzzy algorithm, Image Sequences, triangular membership function

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1 Adaptive Kernel Filtering Used in Video Processing

Authors: Rasmus Engholm, Eva B. Vedel Jensen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

In this paper we present a noise reduction filter for video processing. It is based on the recently proposed two dimensional steering kernel, extended to three dimensions and further augmented to suit the spatial-temporal domain of video processing. Two alternative filters are proposed - the time symmetric kernel and the time asymmetric kernel. The first reduces the noise on single sequences, but to handle the problems at scene shift the asymmetric kernel is introduced. The performance of both are tested on simulated data and on a real video sequence together with the existing steering kernel. The proposed kernels improves the Rooted Mean Squared Error (RMSE) compared to the original steering kernel method on video material.

Keywords: video processing, Kernel methods, Noise Reduction, Adaptive image filtering

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