Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Nanoparticle Related Publications

13 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, zinc oxide, antibacterial activity, binder, cotton fabric

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12 The Effect of Magnetite Particle Size on Methane Production by Fresh and Degassed Anaerobic Sludge

Authors: E. Al-Essa, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham

Abstract:

Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-supplementation (7 mM) on methane production from digested sludge undergoing two different microbial growth phases, namely fresh sludge (exponential growth phase) and degassed sludge (endogenous decay phase). Three different particle sizes were assessed: small (50 - 150 nm), medium (168 – 490 nm) and large (800 nm - 4.5 µm) particles. Results show that, in the case of the fresh sludge, magnetite significantly enhanced the methane production rate (up to 32%) and reduced the lag phase (by 15% - 41%) as compared to the control, regardless of the particle size used. However, the cumulative methane produced at the end of the incubation was comparable in all treatment and control bottles. In the case of the degassed sludge, only the medium-sized magnetite particles increased significantly the methane production rate (12% higher) as compared to the control. Small and large particles had little effect on the methane production rate but did result in an extended lag phase which led to significantly lower cumulative methane production at the end of the incubation period. These results suggest that magnetite produces a clear and positive effect on methane production only when an active and balanced microbial community is present in the anaerobic digester. It is concluded that, (i) the effect of magnetite particle size on increasing the methane production rate and reducing lag phase duration is strongly influenced by the initial metabolic state of the microbial consortium, and (ii) the particle size would positively affect the methane production if it is provided within the nanometer size range.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Methanogenesis, Anaerobic Digestion, iron oxide (Fe3O4)

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11 Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots

Authors: Mehran Bakhshi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mohammadhosein Rahimi

Abstract:

The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Biosynthesis, cadmium cake, cadmium sulfide, zinc smelter

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10 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan

Abstract:

Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bacteria, Biosynthesis, Sporosarcina pasteurii, silver-phosphate

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9 Synthesis of Vic-Dioxime Palladium (II) Complex: Precursor for Deposition on SBA-15 in ScCO2

Authors: Asım Egitmen, Aysen Demir, Burcu Darendeli, Fatma Ulusal, Bilgehan Güzel

Abstract:

Synthesizing supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) soluble precursors would be helpful for many processes of material syntheses based on scCO2. Ligand (amphi-(1Z, 2Z)-N-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-N'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino) were synthesized from chloro glyoxime and flourus aniline and Pd(II) complex (precursor) prepared. For scCO2 deposition method, organometallic precursor was dissolved in scCO2 and impregnated onto the SBA-15 at 90 °C and 3000 psi. Then the organometallic precursor was reduced with H2 in the CO2 mixture (150 psi H2 + 2850 psi CO2). Pd deposited support material was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX analyses. The Pd loading of the prepared catalyst, measured by ICP-OES showed a value of about 1.64% mol/g Pd of catalyst. Average particle size was found 5.3 nm. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst was investigated over Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling reaction in different solvent with K2CO3 at 50 oC. The conversion ratio was determined by gas chromatography.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Nanotube, supercritical CO2, precursor, oximes

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8 Improvement of Chemical Demulsifier Performance Using Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: G. E. Gandomkar, E. Bekhradinassab, S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat

Abstract:

The reduction of water content in crude oil emulsions reduces pipeline corrosion potential and increases the productivity. Chemical emulsification of crude oil emulsions is one of the methods available to reduce the water content. Presence of demulsifier causes the film layer between the crude oil emulsion and water droplets to become unstable leading to the acceleration of water coalescence. This research has been performed to study the improvement performance of a chemical demulsifier by silica nanoparticles. The silica nano-particles have been synthesized by sol-gel technique and precipitation using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactants and then nano-particles are added to the demulsifier. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and SEM. Upon the addition of nanoparticles, bottle tests have been carried out to separate and measure the water content. The results show that silica nano-particles increase the demulsifier efficiency by about 40%.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, dehydration, demulsifier, silicon dioxide

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7 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nanofiber and Nanofiber/Nanoparticle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon

Abstract:

Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Nanocomposites, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Electrospinning, Carbon Nanotube, carbon nanofiber, PAN fiber, activate carbon nanofiber, PVA fiber

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6 Green Prossesing of PS/Nanoparticle Fibers and Studying Morphology and Properties

Authors: M. Kheirandish, S. Borhani

Abstract:

In this experiment Polystyrene/Zinc-oxide (PS/ZnO) nanocomposite fibers were produced by electrospinning technique using limonene as a green solvent. First, the morphology of electrospun pure polystyrene (PS) and PS/ZnO nanocomposite fibers investigated by SEM. Results showed the PS fiber diameter decreased by increasing concentration of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) results showed thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by increasing ZnO NPs in PS electrospun fibers. Considering Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) thermograms for electrospun PS fibers indicated that introduction of ZnO NPs into fibers affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) by reducing it. Also, UV protection properties of nanocomposite fibers were increased by increasing ZnO concentration. Evaluating the effect of metal oxide NPs amount on mechanical properties of electrospun layer showed that tensile strength and elasticity modulus of the electrospun layer of PS increased by addition of ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of nanopcomposite fibers confirmed the presence of NPs in the samples.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, ZnO, polystyrene, electrospininng

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5 Preparation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles by Reduction of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solution and Their Metal-Metal Bonding Properties

Authors: Y. Kobayashi, T. Shirochi, Y. Yasuda, T. Morita

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for preparing metallic Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution, and a metal-metal bonding technique using the Cu particles.Preparation of the Cu particle colloid solution was performed in water at room temperature in air using a copper source (0.01 M Cu(NO3)2), a reducing reagent (0.2 - 1.0 M hydrazine), and stabilizers (0.5×10-3 M citric acid and 5.0×10-3 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide). The metallic Cu nanoparticles with sizes of ca. 60nm were prepared at all the hydrazine concentrations examined. A stage and a plate of metallic Cu were successfully bonded under annealing at 400oC and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5min in H2 gas with help of the metallic Cu particles. A shear strength required for separating the bonded Cu substrates reached the maximum value at a hydrazine concentration of 0.8M, and it decreased beyond the concentration. Consequently, the largest shear strength of 22.9 MPa was achieved at the 0.8 M hydrazine concentration.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bonding, Copper, Colloid, aqueous solution

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4 Size Control of Nanoparticles Using a Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Erika Katayama, Mitsuhiro Matsuzawa

Abstract:

We have developed a microfluidic device system for the continuous producting of nanoparticles, and we have clarified the relationship between the mixing performance of reactors and the particle size. First, we evaluated the mixing performance of reactors by carring out the Villermaux–Dushman reaction and determined the experimental conditions for producing AgCl nanoparticles. Next, we produced AgCl nanoparticles and evaluated the mixing performance and the particle size. We found that as the mixing performance improves the size of produced particles decreases and the particle size distribution becomes sharper. We produced AgCl nanoparticles with a size of 86 nm using the microfluidic device that had the best mixing performance among the three reactors we tested in this study; the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the size distribution of the produced nanoparticles was 26.1%.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Microfluidic, Mixing, Silver Chloride

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3 Study of Electro-Optical Properties of ZnS Nanoparticles Prepared by Colloidal Particles Method

Authors: A. Rahdar, V. Arbabi, H. Ghanbari

Abstract:

ZnS nanoparticles of different size have been synthesized using a colloidal particles method. Zns nanoparticles prepared with capping agent (mercaptoethanol) then were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The particle size of the nanoparticles calculated from the XRD patterns has been found in the range 1.85-2.44nm. Absorption spectra have been obtained using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to find the optical band gap and the obtained values have been founded to being range 3.83-4.59eV. It was also found that energy band gap increase with the increase in molar capping agent solution.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, X-Ray, ZnS

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2 Internal Surface Measurement of Nanoparticle with Polarization-interferometric Nonlinear Confocal Microscope

Authors: Chikara Egami, Kazuhiro Kuwahara

Abstract:

Polarization-interferometric nonlinear confocal microscopy is proposed for measuring a nano-sized particle with optical anisotropy. The anisotropy in the particle was spectroscopically imaged through a three-dimensional distribution of third-order nonlinear dielectric polarization photoinduced.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Optical storage, microscope

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1 Study the Effect of Ultrasonic Irradiation and Surfactant/Fe ions Weight Ratio on Morphology and Particle Size of Magnetite Nanoparticles Synthesised by co-precipitation for Medical Application

Authors: S.Saloomeh Azimipour Meibod, Peyman Pourafshary, Hamid Reza Madaah Hosseini

Abstract:

A biocompatible ferrofluid have been prepared by coprecipitation of FeCl2.4H2O and FeCl3.6H2O under ultrasonic irradiation and with NaOH as alkaline agent. Cystein was also used as capping agent in the solution. Magnetic properties of the produced ferrofluid were then determined by VSM test and magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by XRD and TEM techniques. The effect of surfactant to Fe ion weight ratio was also studied during this project by using two different amount of Dextran. Results showed the presence of a biocompatible superparamagnetic ferrofluid including magnetite nanoparticles with particle size ranging under 20 nm. The increase in the surfactant content results in the narrowing of the size distribution and reduction of the particle size and more solution stability.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Biocompatibility, ferrofluid, ultrasonic irradiation, Sizedistribution

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