Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

MINIMA Related Publications

2 Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Oliver Ohneiser, Francesca De Crescenzio, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jan Kraemer, Bruno Berberian, Sara Bagassi, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Borghini, Fabio Babiloni

Abstract:

An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.

Keywords: Automation, Human Factors, Human Machine Interface, Electroencephalography, eeg, HMI, air traffic controller, MINIMA, OOTL, Out-Of-The-Loop

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1 Cost and Productivity Experiences of Pakistan with Aggregate Learning Curve

Authors: Jamshaid ur Rehman, Shahida Wizarat

Abstract:

The principal focus of this study is on the measurement and analysis of labor learnings in Pakistan. The study at the aggregate economy level focus on the labor productivity movements and at large-scale manufacturing level focus on the cost structure, with isolating the contribution of the learning curve. The analysis of S-shaped curve suggests that learnings are only below one half of aggregate learning curve and other half shows the retardation in learning, hence retardation in productivity movements. The study implies the existence of learning economies in term of cost reduction that is input cost per unit produced decreases by 0.51 percent every time the cumulative production output doubles.

Keywords: Cost, learning curve, MINIMA, Inflection Point, Maxima, and Productivity

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