Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Metaphor Related Publications

6 Mistranslation in Cross Cultural Communication: A Discourse Analysis on Former President Bush’s Speech in 2001

Authors: Lowai Abed

Abstract:

The differences in languages play a big role in cross-cultural communication. If meanings are not translated accurately, the risk can be crucial not only on an interpersonal level, but also on the international and political levels. The use of metaphorical language by politicians can cause great confusion, often leading to statements being misconstrued. In these situations, it is the translators who struggle to put forward the intended meaning with clarity and this makes translation an important field to study and analyze when it comes to cross-cultural communication. Owing to the growing importance of language and the power of translation in politics, this research analyzes part of President Bush’s speech in 2001 in which he used the word “Crusade” which caused his statement to be misconstrued. The research uses a discourse analysis of cross-cultural communication literature which provides answers supported by historical, linguistic, and communicative perspectives. The first finding indicates that the word ‘crusade’ carries different meaning and significance in the narratives of the Western world when compared to the Middle East. The second one is that, linguistically, maintaining cultural meanings through translation is quite difficult and challenging. Third, when it comes to the cross-cultural communication perspective, the common and frequent usage of literal translation is a sign of poor strategies being followed in translation training. Based on the example of Bush’s speech, this paper hopes to highlight the weak practices in translation in cross-cultural communication which are still commonly used across the world. Translation studies have to take issues such as this seriously and attempt to find a solution. In every language, there are words and phrases that have cultural, historical and social meanings that are woven into the language. Literal translation is not the solution for this problem because that strategy is unable to convey these meanings in the target language.

Keywords: Metaphor, mistranslation, crusade, war in terror

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5 Metaphorical Perceptions of Middle School Students Regarding Computer Games

Authors: Ismail Sahin, Fetah Eren, Ismail Celik

Abstract:

The computer, among the most important inventions of the twentieth century, has become an increasingly important component in our everyday lives. Computer games also have become increasingly popular among people day-by-day, owing to their features based on realistic virtual environments, audio and visual features, and the roles they offer players. In the present study, the metaphors students have for computer games are investigated, as well as an effort to fill the gap in the literature. Students were asked to complete the sentence—‘Computer game is like/similar to….because….’— to determine the middle school students’ metaphorical images of the concept for ‘computer game’. The metaphors created by the students were grouped in six categories, based on the source of the metaphor. These categories were ordered as ‘computer game as a means of entertainment’, ‘computer game as a beneficial means’, ‘computer game as a basic need’, ‘computer game as a source of evil’, ‘computer game as a means of withdrawal’, and ‘computer game as a source of addiction’, according to the number of metaphors they included.

Keywords: Computer Game, Metaphor, middle school students

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4 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: T. Solonchak, S. Pesina

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values ​​and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: Cognitive Linguistics, Image, Metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, erased image, vivid image

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3 Meaning Chasing Kiddies: Children-s Perception of Metaphors Used in Printed Advertisements

Authors: Aşina Gülerarslan

Abstract:

Today-s children, who are born into a more colorful, more creative, more abstract and more accessible communication environment than their ancestors as a result of dizzying advances in technology, have an interesting capacity to perceive and make sense of the world. Millennium children, who live in an environment where all kinds of efforts by marketing communication are more intensive than ever are, from their early childhood on, subject to all kinds of persuasive messages. As regards advertising communication, it outperforms all the other marketing communication efforts in creating little consumer individuals and, as a result of processing of codes and signs, plays a significant part in building a world of seeing, thinking and understanding for children. Children who are raised with metaphorical expressions such as tales and riddles also meet that fast and effective meaning communication in advertisements. Children-s perception of metaphors, which help grasp the “product and its promise" both verbally and visually and facilitate association between them is the subject of this study. Stimulating and activating imagination, metaphors have unique advantages in promoting the product and its promise especially in regard to print advertisements, which have certain limitations. This study deals comparatively with both literal and metaphoric versions of print advertisements belonging to various product groups and attempts to discover to what extent advertisements are liked, recalled, perceived and are persuasive. The sample group of the study, which was conducted in two elementary schools situated in areas that had different socioeconomic features, consisted of children aged 12.

Keywords: Perception, Children, Metaphor, recall, print advertisements

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2 Metaphor in Terminology: Visualization as a Way to Term Perception

Authors: Jeļena Tretjakova

Abstract:

Metaphor has recently gained extensive interest most probably due to developments in cognitive sciences and the study of language as the reflection of humans- world perception. Metaphor is no longer reckoned as solely literary expressive means. Nowadays it is studied in a whole number of discourses, such as politics, law, medicine, sports, etc. with the purpose of the analysis and determining its role. The scientific language is not an exception. It might seem that metaphor cannot suit it; we would dare to draw a hypothesis that metaphor has indeed found its stable place in terminology. In comprehension of metaphorically represented terms the stage of visualization plays a significant role. We proceeded on the assumption that this stage is the main in provision of better term comprehension and would try to exemplify it with metaphoricallyoriented terms.

Keywords: Visualization, Terminology, Comprehension, Metaphor

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1 Advanced Polymorphic Techniques

Authors: Philippe Beaucamps

Abstract:

Nowadays viruses use polymorphic techniques to mutate their code on each replication, thus evading detection by antiviruses. However detection by emulation can defeat simple polymorphism: thus metamorphic techniques are used which thoroughly change the viral code, even after decryption. We briefly detail this evolution of virus protection techniques against detection and then study the METAPHOR virus, today's most advanced metamorphic virus.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Metaphor, obfuscation, Computer virus, Viral mutation, Meta¬morphism, Virus history, Viral genetic techniques

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