Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Measurement Related Publications

32 Design, Simulation, and Implementation of a Digital Pulse Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Using the Arduino Microcontroller

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Md. Refat Sarder

Abstract:

If a person can monitor his/her oxygen saturation level intermittently then he/she can identify his/her condition early and thus he/she can seek a doctor’s help. This paper reports the design, simulation, and implementation of a low-cost pulse oxygen saturation measurement device based on a reflective photoplethysmography (PPG) system using an integrated circuit sensor as the fundamental component of this health status checking device. The measurement of the physiological parameter is the blood oxygen saturation level (SpO2) in the peripheral capillary. This work has been implemented using an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller along with this sensor integrated circuit (IC). The system is designed in the Proteus environment and then simulated to check its performance. After that, the hardware implementation is performed. We used a clipping type optical sensor to sense the arterial oxygen saturation level of blood signal from the fingertips of an individual and then transformed it into the digital data in the microcontroller through its programming its instruction. The designed system was tested by measuring the SpO2 level for several people of different ages, from 12 to 57 years of age. Besides, the same people were tested using a standard machine purchased from the market. Test results were found very satisfactory as the average percentage of error was very low, 1.59% only.

Keywords: Design, Simulation, Measurement, Implementation, proteus, Arduino Uno microcontroller, Digital pulse oxygen saturation level, oximeter

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31 Fault Location Identification in High Voltage Transmission Lines

Authors: Khaled M. El Naggar

Abstract:

This paper introduces a digital method for fault section identification in transmission lines. The method uses digital set of the measured short circuit current to locate faults in electrical power systems. The digitized current is used to construct a set of overdetermined system of equations. The problem is then constructed and solved using the proposed digital optimization technique to find the fault distance. The proposed optimization methodology is an application of simulated annealing optimization technique. The method is tested using practical case study to evaluate the proposed method. The accurate results obtained show that the algorithm can be used as a powerful tool in the area of power system protection.

Keywords: Optimization, Measurement, High Voltage, simulated annealing, estimation, faults

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30 Assessing the Social Impacts of Regional Services: The Case of a Portuguese Municipality

Authors: A. Camões, M. Ferreira Dias, M. Amorim

Abstract:

In recent years, the social economy is increasingly seen as a viable means to address social problems. Social enterprises, as well as public projects and initiatives targeted to meet social purposes, offer organizational models that assume heterogeneity, flexibility and adaptability to the ‘real world and real problems’. Despite the growing popularity of social initiatives, decision makers still face a paucity in what concerns the available models and tools to adequately assess its sustainability, and its impacts, notably the nature of its contribution to economic growth. This study was carried out at the local level, by analyzing the social impact initiatives and projects promoted by the Municipality of Albergaria-a-Velha (Câmara Municipal de Albergaria-a-Velha -CMA), a municipality of 25,000 inhabitants in the central region of Portugal. This work focuses on the challenges related to the qualifications and employability of citizens, which stands out as one of the key concerns in the Portuguese economy, particularly expressive in the context of small-scale cities and inland territories. The study offers a characterization of the Municipality, its socio-economic structure and challenges, followed by an exploratory analysis of multiple sourced data, collected from the CMA's documental sources as well as from privileged informants. The purpose is to conduct detailed analysis of the CMA's social projects, aimed at characterizing its potential impact for the model of qualifications and employability of the citizens of the Municipality. The study encompasses a discussion of the socio-economic profile of the municipality, notably its asymmetries, the analysis of the social projects and initiatives, as well as of data derived from inquiry actors involved in the implementation of the social projects and its beneficiaries. Finally, the results obtained with the Better Life Index will be included. This study makes it possible to ascertain if what is implicit in the literature goes to the encounter of what one experiences in reality.

Keywords: Measurement, Social impact, Municipalities, social economy

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29 Comparing Measurements of UV Radiation in Winter and Summer in Finland

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

The objective of our study is to investigate UV exposure in Finland through sample measurements as a typical case study in summer and winter. We measured UV-BC weighted radiation and calculated a daily dose, which is about 100–150 times the Finnish exposure limit value in summer and 1–6 times in winter. The measured ultraviolet indices varied from 0 to 7 (scale 0–18), which is less than the values obtained in countries that are located farther south from Tampere latitude of 61 degrees. In wintertime, the UV exposure was modest compared to summertime, 50–150 mW/m2 and about 1–5 mW/m2 in summer and winter, respectively. However, technical means to manage UV exposure in Scandinavia are also needed in summer- and springtime.

Keywords: Measurement, Ultraviolet radiation, winter, summer

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28 Research on the Impact on Building Temperature and Ventilation by Outdoor Shading Devices in Hot-Humid Area: Through Measurement and Simulation on an Office Building in Guangzhou

Authors: Hankun Lin, Yiqiang Xiao, Qiaosheng Zhan

Abstract:

Shading devices (SDs) are widely used in buildings in the hot-humid climate areas for reducing cooling energy consumption for interior temperature, as the result of reducing the solar radiation directly. Contrasting the surface temperature of materials of SDs to the glass on the building façade could give more analysis for the shading effect. On the other side, SDs are much more used as the independence system on building façade in hot-humid area. This typical construction could have some impacts on building ventilation as well. This paper discusses the outdoor SDs’ effects on the building thermal environment and ventilation, through a set of measurements on a 2-floors office building in Guangzhou, China, which install a dynamic aluminum SD-system around the façade on 2nd-floor. The measurements recorded the in/outdoor temperature, relative humidity, velocity, and the surface temperature of the aluminum panel and the glaze. After that, a CFD simulation was conducted for deeper discussion of ventilation. In conclusion, this paper reveals the temperature differences on the different material of the façade, and finds that the velocity of indoor environment could be reduced by the outdoor SDs.

Keywords: CFD, Measurement, temperature, ventilation, outdoor shading devices, hot-humid area

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27 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Optical Fiber, Measurement, temperature, strain, humidity, SHM, Bragg sensor

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26 Measuring Science and Technology Innovation Capacity in Developing Countries: From a National Innovation System

Authors: Haeng A. Seo, Changseok Oh, Seung Jun Yoo

Abstract:

This study attempts to examine the disparities in S&T innovation capacity from 14 developing countries to discuss how to support specific features in national innovation systems. It includes East-Asian, Middle-Asian, Central American and African countries. Here, we particularly focus on five dimensions- resources, activities, network, environment and performance- with 37 indicators. They were derived as structuring components of the relevant diagnostic model, which encompasses the whole process of S&T innovation from the input of resources to the output of economically valuable results. For many developing nations, economic industries remain weaker than actual S&T capabilities, and relevant regulatory authorities may not exist. This paper will be helpful to provide basic evidence and to set directions for better national S&T Innovation capacities and toward national competitiveness.

Keywords: Measurement, developing countries, NIS, S&T innovation capacity

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25 Accuracy of Small Field of View CBCT in Determining Endodontic Working Length

Authors: N. L. S. Ahmad, Y. L. Thong, P. Nambiar

Abstract:

An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of small field of view (FOV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determining endodontic working length. The objectives were to determine the accuracy of CBCT in measuring the estimated preoperative working lengths (EPWL), endodontic working lengths (EWL) and file lengths. Access cavities were prepared in 27 molars. For each root canal, the baseline electronic working length was determined using an EAL (Raypex 5). The teeth were then divided into overextended, non-modified and underextended groups and the lengths were adjusted accordingly. Imaging and measurements were made using the respective software of the RVG (Kodak RVG 6100) and CBCT units (Kodak 9000 3D). Root apices were then shaved and the apical constrictions viewed under magnification to measure the control working lengths. The paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference between CBCT EPWL and control length but the difference was too small to be clinically significant. From the Bland Altman analysis, the CBCT method had the widest range of 95% limits of agreement, reflecting its greater potential of error. In measuring file lengths, RVG had a bigger window of 95% limits of agreement compared to CBCT. Conclusions: (1) The clinically insignificant underestimation of the preoperative working length using small FOV CBCT showed that it is acceptable for use in the estimation of preoperative working length. (2) Small FOV CBCT may be used in working length determination but it is not as accurate as the currently practiced method of using the EAL. (3) It is also more accurate than RVG in measuring file lengths.

Keywords: Measurement, Endodontic, Accuracy, CBCT

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24 Dual-Task – Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas

Abstract:

With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of taskinterrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematisation of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: Cognition, Measurement, Interference, dual-task

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23 The Study of Super Hydrophobic Surfaces Using High Speed Shadowgraphy

Authors: D. Jasikova, M. Kotek, V. Kopecky

Abstract:

The aim of this article is the measurement of the basic characteristic of superhydrophobic surfaces using high speed shadowgraphy. Here we describe the novel patented system for the industrial production of superhydrophobic surfaces. These surfaces were investigated with two optically based measurement methods: impinging drop and inclined wall. The results of the visualization and analysis help to state the suitable sample with superhydrophobic properties for mathematic simulation.

Keywords: plasma, Measurement, Contact angle, hydrophobic, shadowgraphy, superhydrophobic surface, Antipearl effect, impinging drop, inclined wall

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22 Tests and Measurements of Image Acquisition Characteristics for Image Sensors

Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Jong-Bae Lee, Wookkang Lee, Duyen Hai Pham

Abstract:

In the image sensors, the acquired image often differs from the real image in luminance or chrominance due to fabrication defects or nonlinear characteristics, which often lead to pixel defects or sensor failure. Therefore, the image acquisition characteristics of image sensors should be measured and tested before they are mounted on the target product. In this paper, the standardized test and measurement methods of image sensors are introduced. It applies standard light source to the image sensor under test, and the characteristics of the acquired image is compared with ideal values.

Keywords: Test, Measurement, Failure, standard, defect, image sensor, Image Acquisition Characteristics

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21 A Development of the Multiple Intelligences Measurement of Elementary Students

Authors: Chaiwat Waree

Abstract:

This research aims at development of the Multiple Intelligences Measurement of Elementary Students. The structural accuracy test and normality establishment are based on the Multiple Intelligences Theory of Gardner. This theory consists of eight aspects namely linguistics, logic and mathematics, visual-spatial relations, body and movement, music, human relations, self-realization/selfunderstanding and nature. The sample used in this research consists of elementary school students (aged between 5-11 years). The size of the sample group was determined by Yamane Table. The group has 2,504 students. Multistage Sampling was used. Basic statistical analysis and construct validity testing were done using confirmatory factor analysis. The research can be summarized as follows; 1. Multiple Intelligences Measurement consisting of 120 items is content-accurate. Internal consistent reliability according to the method of Kuder-Richardson of the whole Multiple Intelligences Measurement equals .91. The difficulty of the measurement test is between .39-.83. Discrimination is between .21-.85. 2). The Multiple Intelligences Measurement has construct validity in a good range, that is 8 components and all 120 test items have statistical significance level at .01. Chi-square value equals 4357.7; p=.00 at the degree of freedom of 244 and Goodness of Fit Index equals 1.00. Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index equals .92. Comparative Fit Index (CFI) equals .68. Root Mean Squared Residual (RMR) equals 0.064 and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation equals 0.82. 3). The normality of the Multiple Intelligences Measurement is categorized into 3 levels. Those with high intelligence are those with percentiles of more than 78. Those with moderate/medium intelligence are those with percentiles between 24 and 77.9. Those with low intelligence are those with percentiles from 23.9 downwards.

Keywords: Measurement, multiple intelligences, Elementary Students

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20 Colorectal Cancer Screening by a CEACAM-6 Immunosensor

Authors: C. T. S. Ching, P. W. C hen, T. P. Sun, H. L. Shieh

Abstract:

The biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) is CEACAM-6 antigen (C6AG). Therefore, this study aims to develop a novel, simple and low-cost CEACAM-6 antigen immumosensor (C6AG-IMS), based on electrical impedance measurement, for precise determination of C6AG. A low-cost screen-printed graphite electrode was constructed and used as the sensor, with CEACAM-6 antibody (C6AB) immobilized on it. The procedures of sensor fabrication and antibody immobilization are simple and low-cost. Measurement of the electrical impedance at a definite frequency ranges (0.43 – 1.26 MHz) showed that the C6AG-IMS has an excellent linear (r2>0.9) response range (8.125 – 65 pg/mL), covering the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood C6AG levels. Also, the C6AG-IMS has excellent reliability and validity, with the intraclass correlation coefficient being 0.97. In conclusion, a novel, simple, low-cost and reliable C6AG-IMS was designed and developed, being able to accurately determine blood C6AG levels in the range of pathological and normal physiological regions. The C6AG-IMS can provide a point-of-care and immediate screening results to the user at home.

Keywords: Measurement, colorectal cancer, immunosensor, point-of-care, Electrical Impedance, CEACAM-6

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19 Programmable Logic Controller for Cassava Centrifugal Machine

Authors: R. Oonsivilai, M. Oonsivilai, J. Sanguemrum, N. Thumsirirat, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Chaiyaphum Starch Co. Ltd. is one of many starch manufacturers that has introduced machinery to aid in manufacturing. Even though machinery has replaced many elements and is now a significant part in manufacturing processes, problems that must be solved with respect to current process flow to increase efficiency still exist. The paper-s aim is to increase productivity while maintaining desired quality of starch, by redesigning the flipping machine-s mechanical control system which has grossly low functional lifetime. Such problems stem from the mechanical control system-s bearings, as fluids and humidity can access into said bearing directly, in tandem with vibrations from the machine-s function itself. The wheel which is used to sense starch thickness occasionally falls from its shaft, due to high speed rotation during operation, while the shaft may bend from impact when processing dried bread. Redesigning its mechanical control system has increased its efficiency, allowing quality thickness measurement while increasing functional lifetime an additional 62 days.

Keywords: Machinery, Control System, Measurement, Potato starch

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18 Measuring Awareness of Waste Management among School Children using Rasch Model Analysis

Authors: N. Esa, M. A. Samsuddin, N. Yakob, H. M. Yunus, M. H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

The enormous amount of solid waste generated poses huge problems in waste management. It is therefore important to gauge the awareness of the public with regards to waste management. In this study, an instrument was developed to measure the beliefs, attitudes and practices about waste management of school children as an indication of their waste management awareness. This instrument has showed that a positive awareness towards waste management refers mainly to attitudes. However it is not easy for people to practice waste management as a reflection of their awareness.

Keywords: Measurement, awareness, Rasch model, Waste Management

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17 Measurement of Systemic Power Efficiency of Microwave Heating Application

Authors: Yi He, Nutdechatorn Puangngernmak, Suramate Chalermwisutkul

Abstract:

Microwave heating process has been developed about sixty years while measurement system has also progressed. Because of irradiation of high frequency of microwave, researchers have been utilized many costly technical instrument measuring parameters to evaluate the performance of microwave heating system. Therefore, this paper is intended to present an easier and feasible efficiency measurement method. It can help inspecting efficiency of microwave heating system with good accuracy, while the method can also give reference to optimizing procedure for microwave heating system for various load material

Keywords: Measurement, microwave heating system, systemic power efficiency

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16 Applying Complex Network Theory to Software Structure Analysis

Authors: Weifeng Pan

Abstract:

Complex networks have been intensively studied across many fields, especially in Internet technology, biological engineering, and nonlinear science. Software is built up out of many interacting components at various levels of granularity, such as functions, classes, and packages, representing another important class of complex networks. It can also be studied using complex network theory. Over the last decade, many papers on the interdisciplinary research between software engineering and complex networks have been published. It provides a different dimension to our understanding of software and also is very useful for the design and development of software systems. This paper will explore how to use the complex network theory to analyze software structure, and briefly review the main advances in corresponding aspects.

Keywords: software, Complex Networks, Metrics, Measurement

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15 Investigating Ultra Violet (UV) Strength against Different Level of Altitude using New Environmental Data Management System

Authors: M. Amir Abas, M. Dahlui

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation results of UV measurement at different level of altitudes and the development of a new portable instrument for measuring UV. The rapid growth of industrial sectors in developing countries including Malaysia, brings not only income to the nation, but also causes pollution in various forms. Air pollution is one of the significant contributors to global warming by depleting the Ozone layer, which would reduce the filtration of UV rays. Long duration of exposure to high to UV rays has many devastating health effects to mankind directly or indirectly through destruction of the natural resources. This study aimed to show correlation between UV and altitudes which indirectly can help predict Ozone depletion. An instrument had been designed to measure and monitors the level of UV. The instrument comprises of two main blocks namely data logger and Graphic User Interface (GUI). Three sensors were used in the data logger to detect changes in the temperature, humidity and ultraviolet. The system has undergone experimental measurement to capture data at two different conditions; industrial area and high attitude area. The performance of the instrument showed consistency in the data captured and the results of the experiment drew a significantly high reading of UV at high altitudes.

Keywords: Global Warming, Measurement, monitoring, Ultraviolet, Ozone Layer

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14 A New Precautionary Method for Measurement and Improvement the Data Quality

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hossein Moossavizadeh, Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Nasrin Arshadi

Abstract:

the data quality is a kind of complex and unstructured concept, which is concerned by information systems managers. The reason of this attention is the high amount of Expenses for maintenance and cleaning of the inefficient data. Such a data more than its expenses of lack of quality, cause wrong statistics, analysis and decisions in organizations. Therefor the managers intend to improve the quality of their information systems' data. One of the basic subjects of quality improvement is the evaluation of the amount of it. In this paper, we present a precautionary method, which with its application the data of information systems would have a better quality. Our method would cover different dimensions of data quality; therefor it has necessary integrity. The presented method has tested on three dimensions of accuracy, value-added and believability and the results confirm the improvement and integrity of this method.

Keywords: Information System, Measurement, Data Quality, Improvement, precaution

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13 Model Based Monitoring Using Integrated Data Validation, Simulation and Parameter Estimation

Authors: Reza Hayati, Maryam Sadi, Saeid Shokri, Mehdi Ahmadi Marvast, Saeid Hassan Boroojerdi, Amin Hamzavi Abedi

Abstract:

Efficient and safe plant operation can only be achieved if the operators are able to monitor all key process parameters. Instrumentation is used to measure many process variables, like temperatures, pressures, flow rates, compositions or other product properties. Therefore Performance monitoring is a suitable tool for operators. In this paper, we integrate rigorous simulation model, data reconciliation and parameter estimation to monitor process equipments and determine key performance indicator (KPI) of them. The applied method here has been implemented in two case studies.

Keywords: Optimization, Measurement, performance monitoring, Parameter Estimation, Data Reconciliation

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12 Power Frequency Magnetic Field Survey in Indoor Power Distribution Substation in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Hossam_ ElDin, Ahmed Farag, Ibrahim Madi., Hanaa Karawia

Abstract:

In our modern society electricity is vital to our health, safety, comfort and well-being. While our daily use of electricity is often taken for granted, public concern has arisen about potential adverse health effects from electric and magnetic – electromagnetic – fields (EMFs) produced by our use of electricity. This paper aims to compare between the measured magnetic field values and the simulated models for the indoor medium to low voltage (MV/LV) distribution substations. To calculate the magnetic flux density in the substations, interactive software SUBCALC is used which is based on closed form solution of the Biot-Savart law with 3D conductor model. The comparison between the measured values and the simulated models was acceptable. However there were some discrepancies, as expected, may be due to the current variation during measurements.

Keywords: Simulation, Measurement, Magnetic Field, Distribution substation

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11 MIMO Antenna Selections using CSI from Reciprocal Channel

Authors: P. Uthansakul, K. Attakitmongkol, N. Promsuvana, M. Uthansakul

Abstract:

It is well known that the channel capacity of Multiple- Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) system increases as the number of antenna pairs between transmitter and receiver increases but it suffers from multiple expensive RF chains. To reduce the cost of RF chains, Antenna Selection (AS) method can offer a good tradeoff between expense and performance. In a transmitting AS system, Channel State Information (CSI) feedback is necessarily required to choose the best subset of antennas in which the effects of delays and errors occurred in feedback channels are the most dominant factors degrading the performance of the AS method. This paper presents the concept of AS method using CSI from channel reciprocity instead of feedback method. Reciprocity technique can easily archive CSI by utilizing a reverse channel where the forward and reverse channels are symmetrically considered in time, frequency and location. In this work, the capacity performance of MIMO system when using AS method at transmitter with reciprocity channels is investigated by own developing Testbed. The obtained results show that reciprocity technique offers capacity close to a system with a perfect CSI and gains a higher capacity than a system without AS method from 0.9 to 2.2 bps/Hz at SNR 10 dB.

Keywords: Measurement, Capacity, channel, mimo, reciprocity, Antenna selection

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10 Developing and Implementing Successful Key Performance Indicators

Authors: Marie Mikušová, Viktorie Janečková

Abstract:

Measurement and the following evaluation of performance represent important part of management. The paper focuses on indicators as the basic elements of performance measurement system. It emphasizes a necessity of searching requirements for quality indicators so that they can become part of the useful system. It introduces standpoints for a systematic dividing of indicators so that they have as high as possible informative value of background sources for searching, analysis, designing and using of indicators. It draws attention to requirements for indicators' quality and at the same it deals with some dangers decreasing indicator's informative value. It submits a draft of questions that should be answered at the construction of indicator. It is obvious that particular indicators need to be defined exactly to stimulate the desired behavior in order to attain expected results. In the enclosure a concrete example of the defined indicator in the concrete conditions of a small firm is given. The authors of the paper pay attention to the fact that a quality indicator makes it possible to get to the basic causes of the problem and include the established facts into the company information system. At the same time they emphasize that developing of a quality indicator is a prerequisite for the utilization of the system of measurement in management.

Keywords: Measurement, Performance, Indicator, firm

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9 Influence of High Speed Parameters on the Quality of Machined Surface

Authors: Jana Novakova, Lenka Petrkovska, Josef Brychta, Robert Cep, Lenka Ocenasova

Abstract:

The contribution is dealing with the influence of high speed parameters on the quality of machined surface. In general the principle of high speed cutting lies in achieving faster machine times with concurrent increase in accuracy and quality of the machined areas in largely irregular, mathematically hard to define shapes. High speed machining is a highly effective method of machining with the following goals: increasing of machining productivity, increasing of quality of the machined surface, improving of machining economy, improving of ecological aspects of machining. This article is based on an experiment performed by the Department of Machining and Assembly of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of VŠBTechnical University of Ostrava.

Keywords: Measurement, Surface Integrity, surface roughness, high speed cutting, residual stress/

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8 WLAN Positioning Based on Joint TOA and RSS Characteristics

Authors: Peerapong Uthansakul, Monthippa Uthansakul

Abstract:

WLAN Positioning has been presented by many approaches in literatures using the characteristics of Received Signal Strength (RSS), Time of Arrival (TOA) or Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), Angle of Arrival (AOA) and cell ID. Among these, RSS approach is the simplest method to implement because there is no need of modification on both access points and client devices whereas its accuracy is terrible due to physical environments. For TOA or TDOA approach, the accuracy is quite acceptable but most researches have to modify either software or hardware on existing WLAN infrastructure. The scales of modifications are made on only access card up to the changes in protocol of WLAN. Hence, it is an unattractive approach to use TOA or TDOA for positioning system. In this paper, the new concept of merging both RSS and TOA positioning techniques is proposed. In addition, the method to achieve TOA characteristic for positioning WLAN user without any extra modification necessarily appended in the existing system is presented. The measurement results confirm that the proposed technique using both RSS and TOA characteristics provides better accuracy than using only either RSS or TOA approach.

Keywords: Measurement, WLAN, Positioning System, time of arrival, received signal strength

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7 Edge Detection in Digital Images Using Fuzzy Logic Technique

Authors: Abdallah A. Alshennawy, Ayman A. Aly

Abstract:

The fuzzy technique is an operator introduced in order to simulate at a mathematical level the compensatory behavior in process of decision making or subjective evaluation. The following paper introduces such operators on hand of computer vision application. In this paper a novel method based on fuzzy logic reasoning strategy is proposed for edge detection in digital images without determining the threshold value. The proposed approach begins by segmenting the images into regions using floating 3x3 binary matrix. The edge pixels are mapped to a range of values distinct from each other. The robustness of the proposed method results for different captured images are compared to those obtained with the linear Sobel operator. It is gave a permanent effect in the lines smoothness and straightness for the straight lines and good roundness for the curved lines. In the same time the corners get sharper and can be defined easily.

Keywords: Image Processing, Computer Vision, Fuzzy Logic, Measurement, Edge Detection, Mechanical parts

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6 Bi-Criteria Latency Optimization of Intra-and Inter-Autonomous System Traffic Engineering

Authors: K. Vidya, V.Rhymend Uthariaraj

Abstract:

Traffic Engineering (TE) is the process of controlling how traffic flows through a network in order to facilitate efficient and reliable network operations while simultaneously optimizing network resource utilization and traffic performance. TE improves the management of data traffic within a network and provides the better utilization of network resources. Many research works considers intra and inter Traffic Engineering separately. But in reality one influences the other. Hence the effective network performances of both inter and intra Autonomous Systems (AS) are not optimized properly. To achieve a better Joint Optimization of both Intra and Inter AS TE, we propose a joint Optimization technique by considering intra-AS features during inter – AS TE and vice versa. This work considers the important criterion say latency within an AS and between ASes. and proposes a Bi-Criteria Latency optimization model. Hence an overall network performance can be improved by considering this jointoptimization technique in terms of Latency.

Keywords: Traffic Engineering, Measurement, Inter-Domain Routing, OptimizationPerformance

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5 Implementation of an On-Line PD Measurement System Using HFCT

Authors: F. Haghjoo, M. Sarlak, S.M. Shahrtash

Abstract:

In order to perform on-line measuring and detection of PD signals, a total solution composing of an HFCT, A/D converter and a complete software package is proposed. The software package includes compensation of HFCT contribution, filtering and noise reduction using wavelet transform and soft calibration routines. The results have shown good performance and high accuracy.

Keywords: Measurement, partial discharge, on-line, HFCT

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4 Detection and Pose Estimation of People in Images

Authors: Mousa Mojarrad, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Mehrab Mohebi

Abstract:

Detection, feature extraction and pose estimation of people in images and video is made challenging by the variability of human appearance, the complexity of natural scenes and the high dimensionality of articulated body models and also the important field in Image, Signal and Vision Computing in recent years. In this paper, four types of people in 2D dimension image will be tested and proposed. The system will extract the size and the advantage of them (such as: tall fat, short fat, tall thin and short thin) from image. Fat and thin, according to their result from the human body that has been extract from image, will be obtained. Also the system extract every size of human body such as length, width and shown them in output.

Keywords: Measurement, Analysis of Image Processing, Canny Edge Detection, Human Body Recognition, Pose Estimation

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3 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Maintainability Using Object-Oriented Metrics

Authors: K. K. Aggarwal, Yogesh Singh, Arvinder Kaur, Ruchika Malhotra

Abstract:

Importance of software quality is increasing leading to development of new sophisticated techniques, which can be used in constructing models for predicting quality attributes. One such technique is Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This paper examined the application of ANN for software quality prediction using Object- Oriented (OO) metrics. Quality estimation includes estimating maintainability of software. The dependent variable in our study was maintenance effort. The independent variables were principal components of eight OO metrics. The results showed that the Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE) was 0.265 of ANN model. Thus we found that ANN method was useful in constructing software quality model.

Keywords: Metrics, Measurement, Principal Component Analysis, software quality, Cohesion, Artificial Neural Network, coupling, inheritance

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