Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

lead Related Publications

19 Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples

Authors: W. Srinuttrakul, V. Permnamtip

Abstract:

Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 55 rice samples were 0.112±0.056, 0.029±0.037 and 0.031±0.033 mg kg-1, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026±0.013, 0.007±0.009 and 0.007±0.008 mg day-1, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7%, and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.

Keywords: Arsenic, Rice, cadmium, lead, ICP-MS

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18 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Sorption, zinc, lead, blast furnace sludge

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17 Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods

Authors: Aliaa M. El-Borai, Ehab A. Beltagy, Eman E. Gadallah, Samy A. ElAssar

Abstract:

Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, lead, Box–Behnken, Halomonas sp. ES015, loop bioremediation, Plackett-Burman

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16 Risk Assessment of Lead in Meat from Different Environments of Egypt

Authors: M. A. Abou Donia, A. A. K. Abou-Arab, A. K. Enab

Abstract:

Lead is among the heavy metals and it is one of the highly toxic metals, recognized in most countries. This metal accumulates in animal organs as liver and kidney. The present investigation provides the concentrations of lead in cow's meat and different animal organs collected from three Egyptian environments. The results revealed that lead levels in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and heart in industrial areas were higher than those detected in the same organs of other two areas (heavy traffic and rural), which recorded mean values of 3.0091, 1.7070, 1.8609, 0.6401 and 0.5332 mg/kg, respectively, followed by traffic areas, 2.9166, 1.4443, 1.6967, 0.4042 and 0.4103 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding values of rural areas were 1.8895, 0.9550, 0.9117, 0.3215 and 0.2856 mg/kg, in the same order. It could be recommended that monitoring and evaluation of lead levels in meat at regular intervals are very important.

Keywords: Environments, Heavy Metals, Liver, heart, Kidney, Organs, lead, spleen, meats

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15 Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Natural and Activated Clay: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Modeling

Authors: M. Bagane, L. Khalfa, M. L. Cervera, S. Najjar

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a low cost adsorbent for removing toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Therefore, we are interested to investigate the efficiency of natural clay minerals collected from south Tunisia and their modified form using sulfuric acid in the removal of toxic metal ions: Zn(II) and Pb(II) from synthetic waste water solutions. The obtained results indicate that metal uptake is pH-dependent and maximum removal was detected to occur at pH 6. Adsorption equilibrium is very rapid and it was achieved after 90 min for both metal ions studied. The kinetics results show that the pseudo-second-order model describes the adsorption and the intraparticle diffusion models are the limiting step. The treatment of natural clay with sulfuric acid creates more active sites and increases the surface area, so it showed an increase of the adsorbed quantities of lead and zinc in single and binary systems. The competitive adsorption study showed that the uptake of lead was inhibited in the presence of 10 mg/L of zinc. An antagonistic binary adsorption mechanism was observed. These results revealed that clay is an effective natural material for removing lead and zinc in single and binary systems from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Modeling, lead, kinetic study, competitive adsorption, activated clay, zinc heavy metal

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14 Risk Assessment of Lead in Egyptian Vegetables and Fruits from Different Environments

Authors: M. A. Abou Donia, A. A. K. Abou-Arab, A. K. Enab, Sherif R. Mohamed

Abstract:

Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is exposed to the highest levels of this metal. There are different sources of environmental pollution with lead as lead alkyl additives in petrol and manufacturing processes. The contaminated atmosphere in urban and industrial areas by lead in Egypt may lead to the contamination of foods beside the other different sources. The present investigation studied the risk assessment of lead in some Egyptian edible vegetables and fruits collected from different environments in Greater Cairo Governorate, i.e. industrial, heavy traffic and rural areas. A total of 325 leafy and fruity vegetables and fruits samples belonging to 11, 6 and 4 different species, respectively were randomly collected from markets of the three main models. Data indicated the variation of lead levels in different three areas. The highest levels of lead were detected in the samples collected from industrial and traffic areas. However, the lowest levels were found in the rural areas. It could be concluded that determination of lead levels in foods from different localities and environments at regularly is very important.

Keywords: Environments, Heavy Metals, Vegetables, Fruits, lead

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13 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

Abstract:

The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: stress, phytotoxicity, lead, physiological parameters, broad bean

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12 Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Sewage Sludge from the Middle Region (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah Cities) of Libya

Authors: J. A. Mayouf, Q. A. Najim, H. S. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The concentrations of cadmium and lead in sewage sludge samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method. Samples of sewage sludge were obtained from three sewage treatment plants localised in Middle Region of Libya (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah cities). The results shows that, the mean levels of Cadmium for all regions are ranges from 81 to 123.4 ppm and these values are higher than the limitations for the international standard which are not registered more than 50 ppm (dry weight) in USA, Egypt and the EU countries. While, the lead concentrations are ranged from 8.0 to 189.2 ppm and all values are within the standard limits which graduated between (275–613) ppm.

Keywords: Sewage, Spectrometry, cadmium, lead

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11 Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Tolerant to Lead and Cadmium Toxicity

Authors: Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou Donia, Mohamed Fadel, Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to select the best strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to resist lead and cadmium. Ten strains were screened on the basis of their resistance at different concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ppm for Pb and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm for Cd. The properties of baker's yeast quality were decreased by the increase of Pb or Cd in growth medium. The slope values of yield, total viable cells and gassing power of produced baker's yeast were investigated as an indicator of metal resistant. In addition, concentrations of Pb and Cd in produced baker's yeast were determined. The strain of S. cerevisiae FH-620 had the highest resistance against Pb and Cd and had the minimum levels of both two investigated metals in produced baker's yeast.

Keywords: cadmium, lead, S. cerevisiae, tolerant

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10 Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of Lead Pollution in Egypt

Authors: M. A. Abou Donia, A. A. K. Abou-Arab, Nevin E. Sharaf, A. K. Enab, Sherif R. Mohamed

Abstract:

Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is exposed to the highest levels of this metal from environmental pollutants. A total of 180 Male scalp hair samples were collected from different environments in Greater Cairo (GC), i.e. industrial, heavy traffic and rural areas (60 samples from each) having different activities during the period of, 1/5/2010 to 1/11/2012. Hair samples were collected during five stages. Data proved that the concentration of lead in male industrial areas of Cairo ranged between 6.2847 to 19.0432 μg/g, with mean value of 12.3288 μg/g. On the other hand, lead content of hair samples of residential-traffic areas ranged between 2.8634 to 16.3311 μg/g with mean value of 9.7552 μg/g. While lead concentration on the hair of the male residents living in rural area ranged between 1.0499-9.0402μg/g with mean value of 4.7327 μg/g. The Pb concentration in scalp hair of Cairo residents of residential-traffic and rural traffic areas was observed to follow the same pattern. The pattern was that of decrease concentration of summer and its increase in winter. Then, there was a marked increase in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this increase was significant. These were obviously seen for the residential-traffic and rural areas residents. Pb pollution in residents of industrial areas showed the same seasonal pattern, but there was marked to decrease in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this decrease was significant. Lead pollution in residents of GC was serious. It is worth noting that the atmosphere is still contaminated by lead despite a decade of using unleaded gasoline. Strong seasonal variation in higher Pb concentration on winter than in summer was found. Major contributions to the pollution with Pb could include industry emissions, motor vehicle emissions and long transported dust from outside Cairo. More attention should be paid to the reduction of Pb content of the urban aerosol and to the Pb pollution health.

Keywords: Egypt, lead, hair, seasonal variations, environmental exposure

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9 The Effects of Sewage Sludge Usage and Manure on Some Heavy Metals Uptake in Savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

Authors: A. Hani

Abstract:

In recent decades with the development of technology and lack of food sources, sewage sludge in production of human foods is inevitable. Various sources of municipal and industrial sewage sludge that is produced can provide the requirement of plant nutrients. Soils in arid, semi-arid climate of central Iran that most affected by water drainage, iron and zinc deficiencies, using of sewage sludge is helpful. Therefore, the aim of this study is investigation of sewage sludge and manure application on Ni, Pb and Cd uptake by Savory. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Sewage sludge treatments consisted of four levels, control, 15, 30, 80 tons per hectares; the manure was used in four levels of control, 20, 40 and 80 tons per hectare. Results showed that the wet and dry weights was not affected by sewage sludge using, while, manure has significant effect on them. The effect of sewage sludge on the cadmium and lead concentrations were significant. Interactions of sewage sludge and manure on dry weight values were not significant. Compare mean analysis showed that increasing the amount of sewage sludge had no significant effect on cadmium concentration and it reduced when sewage sludge usage increased. This is probably due to increased plant growth and reduced concentrations of these elements in the plant.

Keywords: Manure, Sewage Sludge, cadmium, lead, savory

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8 Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Changes after Twenty Years of Phasing Out Leaded Gasoline

Authors: M. A. Abou Donia, A. A. K. Abou-Arab, Nevin E. Sharaf, A. K. Enab, Sherif R. Mohamed

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) poisoning is one of the most common and preventable environmental health problems. There are different sources of environmental pollution with lead as lead alkyl additives in petrol and manufacturing processes. Pb in the atmosphere can be deposited in urban soils, and may then be re-suspended to re-enter the atmosphere. This could increase human exposure to Pb and cause long-term health effects. Thus, monitoring Pb pollution is considered one of the major tasks in controlling pollution. Scalp hair can be utilized for the determination of lead (Pb) concentration. It provides a lasting record of metal intakes of weeks or even months, and for most metals, their accumulation in hair reflects their accumulation in the whole body. This work was conducted to investigate the concentration of lead in male scalp hair of Cairo (residential-traffic and residential-industrial) and rural residents after twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline. Results indicated that the mean concentration of lead in hair of residential-traffic (9.7552 μg/g ±0.71) and residential-industrial (12.3288 μg/g ±1.13) was significantly higher than that in rural residents (4.7327 μg/g ±0.67). The mean concentration of lead in hair of resident’s industrial areas was the highest among Cairo residents and not the traffic areas as it was before phasing out of leaded gasoline. Twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline in Cairo has greatly improved the lead pollution among residents of traffic areas, but industrial areas residents were still suffering from lead pollution, which needs more efforts to control the sources of lead pollution.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, lead, hair, biological sample, urban pollution, rural pollution

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7 Functionalized Nanoparticles as Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Species

Authors: Jerina Majeed, Jayshree Ramkumar, S. Chandramouleeswaran, A. K. Tyagi

Abstract:

Removal of various toxic species from aqueous streams is of great importance. Sorption is one of the important remediation procedures as it involves the use of cheap and easily available materials. Also the advantage of regeneration of the sorbent involves the possibility of using novel sorbents. Nanosorbents are very important as the removal is based on the surface phenomena and this is greatly affected by surface charge and area. Functionalization has been very important to bring about the removal of metal ions with greater selectivity.

Keywords: Mercury, lead, thiol functionalization, ZnO NPs

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6 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda

Abstract:

The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected form the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L Alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56% respectively.

Keywords: Industrial Wastewater, lead, activated sludge, BOD5, alum salt

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5 Incorporation Mechanism of Stabilizing Simulated Lead-Laden Sludge in Aluminum-Rich Ceramics

Authors: Xingwen Lu, Kaimin Shih

Abstract:

This study investigated a strategy of blending lead-laden sludge and Al-rich precursors to reduce the release of metals from the stabilized products. Using PbO as the simulated lead-laden sludge to sinter with γ-Al2O3 by Pb:Al molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:12, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 were formed as final products during the sintering process, respectively. By firing the PbO + γ-Al2O3 mixtures with different Pb/Al molar ratios at 600 to 1000 °C, the lead transformation was determined through X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. In Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/2 system, the formation of PbAl2O4 is initiated at 700 °C, but an effective formation was observed above 750 °C. An intermediate phase, Pb9Al8O21, was detected in the temperature range of 800-900 °C. However, different incorporation behavior for sintering PbO with Al-rich precursors at a Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/12 was observed during the formation of PbAl12O19 in this system. In the sintering process, both temperature and time effect on the formation of PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases were estimated. Finally, a prolonged leaching test modified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-s toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the durability of PbO, Pb9Al8O21, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases. Comparison for the leaching results of the four phases demonstrated the higher intrinsic resistance of PbAl12O19 against acid attack.

Keywords: Sludge, Stabilization, lead, leaching behavior

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4 Measurement of Lead Pollution in the Air of Babylon Governorate/Iraq during Year 2010

Authors: Khalid Safaa Hashim Al Khalidy, Ali Jalil Abdul Kareem Chabuk, Majid Mohammed Ali Kadhim

Abstract:

This research aims to study the lead pollution in the air of Babylon governorate that resulted generally from vehicles exhausts in addition to industrial and human activities.Vehicles number in Babylon governorate increased significantly after year 2003 that resulted with increase in lead emissions into the air.Measurement of lead emissions was done in seven stations distributed randomly in Babylon governorate. These stations where located in Industrial (Al-Sena'ay) Quarter, 60 street (near to Babylon sewer directorate), 40 Street (near to the first intersection), Al-Hashmia city, Al-Mahaweel city, , Al- Musayab city in addition to another station in Sayd Idris village belong to Abugharaq district (Agricultural station for comparison). The measured concentrations in these stations were compared with the standard limits of Environmental Protection Agency EPA (2 μg /m3). The results of this study showed that the average of lead concentrations ,in Babylon governorate during year 2010, was (3.13 μg/m3) which was greater than standard limits (2 μg/m3). The maximum concentration of lead was (6.41 μg / m3) recorded in the Industrial (Al-Sena'ay) Quarter during April month, while the minimum concentrations was (0.36 μg / m3) recorded in the agricultural station (Abugharaq) during December month.

Keywords: Pollution, lead, lead concentration

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3 The Adsorption of Lead from Aqueous Solutions Using Coal Fly Ash : Effect of Crystallinity

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of some oxides having high crystallinity, like quartz and mullite. In this study, the effect of CFA crystallinity toward lead adsorption capacity was investigated. To get solid with various crystallinity, the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of 1-7 M was used to treat CFA at various temperature and reflux time. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of NaOH-treated CFA with respect to adsorption capacity, the treated CFA were examine as adsorbent for removing lead in the solution. The result shows that using NaOH to treat CFA causes crystallinity of quartz and mullite decrease. At higher NaOH concentration (>3M), in addition the damage of quartz and mullite crystallinity is followed by crystal formation called hydroxysodalite. The lower crystalllinity, the higher adsorption capacity.

Keywords: Crystallinity, lead, coal fly ash, adsorption capacity

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2 Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics

Authors: A. Karnis, L. Gautron

Abstract:

Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a glassy matrix. Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with 12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay Diffraction. Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We present complete chemical and structural characterization of these phases. They represent a promising way for the immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection (metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal release in the environment.

Keywords: Glass-ceramics, cadmium, lead, diopside, fly ashes, Calcium-rich phases, Domesticwastes, Municipal Solid WasteIncineration

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1 Study of Soil Contaminated with Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead in Ancient Tailings in Zacatecas, México

Authors: J. Ramírez-Ortiz, J. Núñez Monreal

Abstract:

Due to the growth of the urban area towards lands contaminated with ancient tails, in this work we evaluated if the leaching with calcium thiosulfate (CaS2O3) for the recovery of silver, gold and mercury from this soil, also dissolves arsenic, cadmium and lead; for this, we determined their quantity per each fraction of size of particle of the soil before and after the dissolution. Half of the soil samples were leached in the plant Beneficiadora de Jales del Centro, S. A. de C.V. and the rest of them remained in the laboratory. The ICP-OES technique was used to determine the amounts of arsenic, cadmium and lead, in the samples of both lots. The soil samples were collected in a neighboring area at El Lampotal, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, México, with an extension of 600 m2 at 22º52' 37.69'' N, 102º25' 11.73'' W. The amount of arsenic, cadmium and lead found in nonleached soil and for a particle size of 47 μm was 203.72±3.73, 33.63±1.31 and 3480.99±20.4 mg/kg respectively.

Keywords: Soil, Arsenic, cadmium, lead, Tails

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