Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Leaching Related Publications

10 Treatment of Leaden Sludge of Algiers Refinery by Electrooxidation

Authors: K. Ighilahriz, M. Taleb Ahmed, R. Maachi

Abstract:

Oil industries are responsible for most cases of contamination of our ecosystem by oil and heavy metals. They are toxic and considered carcinogenic and dangerous even when they exist in trace amounts. At Algiers refinery, production, transportation, and refining of crude oil generate considerable waste in storage tanks; these residues result from the gravitational settling. The composition of these residues is essentially a mixture of hydrocarbon and lead. We propose in this work the application of electrooxidation treatment for the leachate of the leaden sludge. The effect of pH, current density and the electrolysis time were studied, the effectiveness of the processes is evaluated by measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The dissolution is the best way to mobilize pollutants from leaden mud, so we conducted leaching before starting the electrochemical treatment. The process was carried out in batch mode using graphite anode and a stainless steel cathode. The results clearly demonstrate the compatibility of the technique used with the type of pollution studied. In fact, it allowed COD removal about 80%.

Keywords: Leaching, electrooxidation, leaden sludge, the oil industry

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9 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova

Abstract:

Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: Leaching, cement, hexavalent chromium, total chromium

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8 Thiosulfate Leaching of the Auriferous Ore from Castromil Deposit: A Case Study

Authors: Rui Sousa, Aurora Futuro, António Fiúza

Abstract:

The exploitation of gold ore deposits is highly dependent on efficient mineral processing methods, although actual perspectives based on life-cycle assessment introduce difficulties that were unforeseen in a very recent past. Cyanidation is the most applied gold processing method, but the potential environmental problems derived from the usage of cyanide as leaching reagent led to a demand for alternative methods. Ammoniacal thiosulfate leaching is one of the most important alternatives to cyanidation. In this article, some experimental studies carried out in order to assess the feasibility of thiosulfate as a leaching agent for the ore from the unexploited Portuguese gold mine of Castromil. It became clear that the process depends on the concentrations of ammonia, thiosulfate and copper. Based on this fact, a few leaching tests were performed in order to assess the best reagent prescription, and also the effects of different combination of these concentrations. Higher thiosulfate concentrations cause the decrease of gold dissolution. Lower concentrations of ammonia require higher thiosulfate concentrations, and higher ammonia concentrations require lower thiosulfate concentrations. The addition of copper increases the gold dissolution ratio. Subsequently, some alternative operatory conditions were tested such as variations in temperature and in the solid/liquid ratio as well as the application of a pre-treatment before the leaching stage. Finally, thiosulfate leaching was compared to cyanidation. Thiosulfate leaching showed to be an important alternative, although a pre-treatment is required to increase the yield of the gold dissolution.

Keywords: Leaching, Pre-treatment, Gold, thiosulfate

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7 Analysis of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacteria Attack on Concrete Based On Waste Materials

Authors: A. Eštoková, M. Kovalčíková, A. Luptáková, A. Sičáková, M. Ondová

Abstract:

Concrete durability as an important engineering property of concrete, determining the service life of concrete structures very significantly, can be threatened and even lost due to the interactions of concrete with external environment. Bio-corrosion process caused by presence and activities of microorganisms producing sulphuric acid is a special type of sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The effects of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on various concrete samples, based on silica fume and zeolite, were investigated in laboratory during 180 days. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the performance of concrete samples in terms of the concrete deterioration influenced by the leaching of calcium and silicon compounds from the cement matrix. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in both solid samples and liquid leachates were measured by using X – ray fluorescence method. Experimental studies confirmed the silica fume based concrete samples were found out to have the best performance in terms of both silicon and calcium ions leaching.

Keywords: Concrete, Leaching, Bacteria, Bio-corrosion

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6 Some Aspects of Study the Leaching and Acid Corrosion of Concrete

Authors: Alena Sicakova, Adriana Estokova

Abstract:

Although properly made concrete is inherently a durable material, there are many physical and chemical forces in the environment which can contribute to its deterioration. This paper deals with two aspects of concrete durability in chemical aggressive environment: degradation effect of particular aggressive exposure and role of particular mineral additives. Results of the study of leaching and acid corrosion processes in samples prepared with specific dosage of microsilica and zeolite are given in the paper.

Corrosion progress after 60-day exposition is manifested by increasing rate of both Ca and Si release, what is identified by XRF method. Kind and dosage of additions used in experiment was found to be helpful for stabilization of concrete microstructure.The lowest concentration of mean elements in leachates was observed for mixture V1 (microsilica only) unlike the V2 (microsilica + zeolite). It is surprising in the terms of recommendations of zeolite application for acid exposure. Using microsilica only seems to be more effective.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Sustainability, Leaching, acid corrosion

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5 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya

Abstract:

The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage  sludge in bioleaching processes with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic  (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in  distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared.  The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varies  from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and follows the order: Zn > Mn > Cu  > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process  at heterotrophic metabolism were shown. A new process for  bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle  temperatures after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This  process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic  microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis  of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess  the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which  provide the enhancement of sludge flocks sedimentation. The process  results in biomineral fertilizer of prolonged action with immobilized  sludge bioelements. The fertilizer satisfies the EU limits for the  sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the  biomineral fertilizer obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation  experiments.

 

Keywords: fertilizer, Leaching, Heavy Metals, Sewage Sludge

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4 Mathematical Simulation of Acid Concentration Effects during Acid Nitric Leaching of Cobalt from a Mixed Cobalt-Copper Oxide

Authors: Ek Ngoy, A F Mulaba-Bafubiandi

Abstract:

Cobalt was acid nitric leached from a mixed cobaltcopper oxide with variable acid concentration. Resulting experimental data were used to analyze effects of increase in acid concentration, based on a shrinking core model of the process. The mathematical simulation demonstrated that the time rate of the dissolution mechanism is an increasing function of acid concentration. It was also shown that the magnitude of the acid concentration effect is time dependent and the increase in acid concentration is more effective at earlier stage of the dissolution than at later stage. The remaining process parameters are comprehensively affected by acid concentration and their interaction is synergetic.

Keywords: Simulation, Leaching, cobalt, Acid effect, Cobalt-copper oxide

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3 Release of Elements in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash from Incineration of Peat- and Wood-Residues using a Sequential Extraction Procedure

Authors: Risto Poykio, Kati Manskinen, Olli Dahl, Mikko Mäkelä, Hannu Nurmesniemi

Abstract:

When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most of the elements in the ashes do not occur as readily soluble forms.

Keywords: Waste, Leaching, solubility, ash, BCR

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2 Use of Zeolite and Surfactant Modified Zeolite as Ion Exchangers to Control Nitrate Leaching

Authors: R. Malekian, J. Abedi-Koupai, S. S. Eslamian

Abstract:

Nitrogen loss from irrigated cropland, particularly sandy soils, significantly contributes to nitrate (NO3 -) levels in surface and groundwaters. Thus, it is of great interest to use inexpensive natural products that can increase the fertilizer efficiency and decrease nitrate leaching. In this study, the ability of natural Iranian zeolite clinoptilolite (Cp) and surfactant modified zeolite clinoptilolite (SMZ) to remove NH4 + and NO3 -, respectively, from aqueous solutions was determined. The feasibility of using Cp and SMZ as soil amendment to reduce nitrate leaching from soil using lysimeters was also investigated. Zeolite showed 10.23% to 88.42% NH4 + removal efficiency over a wide range of initial NH4 + concentrations. Nitrate removal efficiency by SMZ was 32.26% to 82.26%. Field study results showed that Cp and SMZ significantly (p < 0.05) reduced leachate NO3-N concentration compared to control. There was no significant difference between maximum and mean leachate NO3-N concentration of SMZ lysimeters and those of Cp lysimeters.

Keywords: Leaching, nitrate removal, ammonium removal, Surfactant modified zeolite

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1 Effect of Cooling Rate on base Metals Recovery from Copper Matte Smelting Slags

Authors: N. Tshiongo , R K.K. Mbaya , K Maweja, L.C. Tshabalala

Abstract:

Slag sample from copper smelting operation in a water jacket furnace from DRC plant was used. The study intends to determine the effect of cooling in the extraction of base metals. The cooling methods investigated were water quenching, air cooling and furnace cooling. The latter cooling ways were compared to the original as received slag. It was observed that, the cooling rate of the slag affected the leaching of base metals as it changed the phase distribution in the slag and the base metals distribution within the phases. It was also found that fast cooling of slag prevented crystallization and produced an amorphous phase that encloses the base metals. The amorphous slags from the slag dumps were more leachable in acidic medium (HNO3) which leached 46%Cu, 95% Co, 85% Zn, 92% Pb and 79% Fe with no selectivity at pH0, than in basic medium (NH4OH). The leachability was vice versa for the modified slags by quenching in water which leached 89%Cu with a high selectivity as metal extractions are less than 1% for Co, Zn, Pb and Fe at ambient temperature and pH12. For the crystallized slags, leaching of base metals increased with the increase of temperature from ambient temperature to 60°C and decreased at the higher temperature of 80°C due to the evaporation of the ammonia solution used for basic leaching, the total amounts of base metals that were leached in slow cooled slags were very low compared to the quenched slag samples.

Keywords: Leaching, Amorphous, copper slag, cooling rate

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