Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

kriging Related Publications

7 Comparison of Data Reduction Algorithms for Image-Based Point Cloud Derived Digital Terrain Models

Authors: M. Yilmaz, M. Uysal, I. Tiryakioglu

Abstract:

Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital numerical representation of the Earth's surface. DTMs have been applied to a diverse field of tasks, such as urban planning, military, glacier mapping, disaster management. In the expression of the Earth' surface as a mathematical model, an infinite number of point measurements are needed. Because of the impossibility of this case, the points at regular intervals are measured to characterize the Earth's surface and DTM of the Earth is generated. Hitherto, the classical measurement techniques and photogrammetry method have widespread use in the construction of DTM. At present, RADAR, LiDAR, and stereo satellite images are also used for the construction of DTM. In recent years, especially because of its superiorities, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has an increased use in DTM applications. A 3D point cloud is created with LiDAR technology by obtaining numerous point data. However recently, by the development in image mapping methods, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetric data acquisition has increased DTM generation from image-based point cloud. The accuracy of the DTM depends on various factors such as data collection method, the distribution of elevation points, the point density, properties of the surface and interpolation methods. In this study, the random data reduction method is compared for DTMs generated from image based point cloud data. The original image based point cloud data set (100%) is reduced to a series of subsets by using random algorithm, representing the 75, 50, 25 and 5% of the original image based point cloud data set. Over the ANS campus of Afyon Kocatepe University as the test area, DTM constructed from the original image based point cloud data set is compared with DTMs interpolated from reduced data sets by Kriging interpolation method. The results show that the random data reduction method can be used to reduce the image based point cloud datasets to 50% density level while still maintaining the quality of DTM.

Keywords: UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, DTM, kriging, random

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6 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee

Abstract:

Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.

Keywords: Uncertainty quantification, kriging, surrogate modeling, Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement, probability-based damage detection, probability of damage existence

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5 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour

Abstract:

In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: deformation, kriging, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming, fifth order spline interpolation

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4 Evaluation of a Surrogate Based Method for Global Optimization

Authors: David Lindström

Abstract:

We evaluate the performance of a numerical method for global optimization of expensive functions. The method is using a response surface to guide the search for the global optimum. This metamodel could be based on radial basis functions, kriging, or a combination of different models. We discuss how to set the cyclic parameters of the optimization method to get a balance between local and global search. We also discuss the eventual problem with Runge oscillations in the response surface.

Keywords: Global optimization, kriging, response surface, expensive function, infill sampling criterion, Runge phenomenon

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3 Spatial Distribution of Cd, Zn and Hg in Groundwater at Rayong Province, Thailand

Authors: T. Makkasap, T. Satapanajaru

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution patterns of Cd, Zn and Hg in groundwater by geospatial interpolation. The study was performed at Rayong province in the eastern part of Thailand, with high agricultural and industrial activities. Groundwater samples were collected twice a year from 31 tubewells around this area. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used to measure the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Hg in groundwater samples. The results demonstrated that concentrations of Cd, Zn and Hg range from 0.000-0.297 mg/L (x = 0.021±0.033 mg/L), 0.022-33.236 mg/L (x = 4.214±4.766 mg/L) and 0.000-0.289 mg/L (x = 0.023±0.034 mg/L), respectively. Most of the heavy metals concentrations were exceeded groundwater quality standards as specified in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. The trend distribution of heavy metals were high concentrations at the southeastern part of the area that especially vulnerable to heavy metals and other contaminants.

Keywords: Groundwater, Heavy Metals, Spatial Distribution, kriging, Rayong

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2 Geostatistical Analysis and Mapping of Groundlevel Ozone in a Medium Sized Urban Area

Authors: F. J. Moral García, P. Valiente González, F. López Rodríguez

Abstract:

Ground-level tropospheric ozone is one of the air pollutants of most concern. It is mainly produced by photochemical processes involving nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the lower parts of the atmosphere. Ozone levels become particularly high in regions close to high ozone precursor emissions and during summer, when stagnant meteorological conditions with high insolation and high temperatures are common. In this work, some results of a study about urban ozone distribution patterns in the city of Badajoz, which is the largest and most industrialized city in Extremadura region (southwest Spain) are shown. Fourteen sampling campaigns, at least one per month, were carried out to measure ambient air ozone concentrations, during periods that were selected according to favourable conditions to ozone production, using an automatic portable analyzer. Later, to evaluate the ozone distribution at the city, the measured ozone data were analyzed using geostatistical techniques. Thus, first, during the exploratory analysis of data, it was revealed that they were distributed normally, which is a desirable property for the subsequent stages of the geostatistical study. Secondly, during the structural analysis of data, theoretical spherical models provided the best fit for all monthly experimental variograms. The parameters of these variograms (sill, range and nugget) revealed that the maximum distance of spatial dependence is between 302-790 m and the variable, air ozone concentration, is not evenly distributed in reduced distances. Finally, predictive ozone maps were derived for all points of the experimental study area, by use of geostatistical algorithms (kriging). High prediction accuracy was obtained in all cases as cross-validation showed. Useful information for hazard assessment was also provided when probability maps, based on kriging interpolation and kriging standard deviation, were produced.

Keywords: MAP, kriging, variogram, tropospheric ozone

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1 Simulation of Organic Matter Variability on a Sugarbeet Field Using the Computer Based Geostatistical Methods

Authors: M. Rüstü Karaman, Tekin Susam, Fatih Er, Servet Yaprak, Osman Karkacıer

Abstract:

Computer based geostatistical methods can offer effective data analysis possibilities for agricultural areas by using vectorial data and their objective informations. These methods will help to detect the spatial changes on different locations of the large agricultural lands, which will lead to effective fertilization for optimal yield with reduced environmental pollution. In this study, topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) samples were taken from a sugar beet field by 20 x 20 m grids. Plant samples were also collected from the same plots. Some physical and chemical analyses for these samples were made by routine methods. According to derived variation coefficients, topsoil organic matter (OM) distribution was more than subsoil OM distribution. The highest C.V. value of 17.79% was found for topsoil OM. The data were analyzed comparatively according to kriging methods which are also used widely in geostatistic. Several interpolation methods (Ordinary,Simple and Universal) and semivariogram models (Spherical, Exponential and Gaussian) were tested in order to choose the suitable methods. Average standard deviations of values estimated by simple kriging interpolation method were less than average standard deviations (topsoil OM ± 0.48, N ± 0.37, subsoil OM ± 0.18) of measured values. The most suitable interpolation method was simple kriging method and exponantial semivariogram model for topsoil, whereas the best optimal interpolation method was simple kriging method and spherical semivariogram model for subsoil. The results also showed that these computer based geostatistical methods should be tested and calibrated for different experimental conditions and semivariogram models.

Keywords: Organic Matter, kriging, Geostatistic, sugarbeet

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