Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Islam Related Publications

16 21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition

Authors: M. M. Muhammed, O. Khuzaima

Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

Keywords: Challenges, Islam, misrepresentation, twenty-first century

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15 The Classical Islamic Laws of Apostasy in the Present Context

Authors: Ali Akbar

Abstract:

The main purpose of this essay is to examine whether or not the earthly punishments in regards to apostates that are often found in classical Islamic sources are applicable in the present context. The paper indeed addresses how Muslims should understand the question of apostasy in the contemporary context. To do so, the paper first argues that an accurate understanding of the way the Quranic verses and prophetic hadiths deal with the concept of apostasy could help us rethink and re-examine the classical Islamic laws on apostasy in the present context. In addition, building on Abdolkarim Soroush’s theory of contraction and expansion of religious knowledge, this article argues that approaches to apostasy in the present context can move away from what prescribed by classical Islamic laws. Finally, it argues that instances of persecution of apostates in the early days of Islam during the Medinan period of Muhammad’s prophetic mission should be interpreted in their own socio-historical context. Rereading these reports within our modern context supports the mutability of the traditional corporal punishments of apostasy.

Keywords: Islam, Quran, Hadith, Contextualization, apostasy, Abdolkarim Soroush

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14 Islam, Gender and Education in Contemporary Georgia: The Example of Kvemo Kartli

Authors: N. Gelovani, D. Ismailov, S. Bochorishvili

Abstract:

Religious minorities of Georgia include Muslims. Their composition is sufficiently miscellaneous, enclosing both ethnical viewpoint and belonging to the inner Islamic denomination. A majority of Muslims represent Azerbaijanis, who chiefly live in Kvemo Kartli (Bolnisi, Gardabani, Dmanisi, Tetri Tskaro, Marneuli and Tsalka). The catalyst for researchers of Islamic History is the geopolitical interests of Georgia, centuries-old contacts with the Islamic world, the not entirely trivial portion of Islam confessor population, the increasing influence of the Islamic factor in current religious-political processes in the world, the elevating procedure of Muslim religious self-consciousness in the Post-Soviet states, significant challenges of international terrorism, and perspectives of rapid globalization. The rise in the level of religious identity of Muslim citizens of Georgia (first of all of those who are not ethnic Georgians) is noticeable. New mosques have been constructed and, sometimes, even young people are being sent to the religious educational institutions of Muslim countries to gain a higher Islamic education. At a time when gender studies are substantive, the goal of which is to eliminate gender-based discrimination and violence in societies, it is essential in Georgia to conduct researches around the concrete problem – Islamic tradition, woman and education in Georgia. A woman’s right to education is an important indicator of women’s general status in a society. The appropriate resources, innovative analysis of Georgian ethnological materials, and surveying of the population (quantitative and qualitative research reports, working papers), condition the success of these researches. In the presented work, interrelation matters of Islam, gender and education in contemporary Georgia by the example of the Azerbaijani population in Kvemo Kartli during period 1992-2016 are studied. We researched the history of Muslim religious education centers in Tbilisi and Kvemo Kartli (Bolnisi, Gardabani, Dmanisi, Tetri Tskaro, Marneuli and Tsalka) in 1992-2016, on the one hand, and the results of sociological interrogation, on the other. As a result of our investigation, we found that Azeri women in the Kvemo Kartli (Georgia) region mostly receive their education in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Educational and Cultural Institutions are inaccessible for most Azeri women. The main reasons are the absence of educational and religious institutions at their places of residence and state policies towards Georgia’s Muslims. 

Keywords: Education, Gender, Islam, Georgia

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13 Promoting Gender Equality within Islamic Tradition via Contextualist Approach

Authors: Ali Akbar

Abstract:

The importance of advancing women’s rights is closely intertwined with the development of civil society and the institutionalization of democracy in Middle Eastern countries. There is indeed an intimate relationship between the process of democratization and promoting gender equality, since democracy necessitates equality between men and women. In order to advance the issue of gender equality, what is required is a solid theoretical framework which has its roots in the reexamination of pre-modern interpretation of certain Qurʾānic passages that seem to have given men more rights than it gives women. This paper suggests that those Muslim scholars who adopt a contextualist approach to the Qurʾānic text and its interpretation provide a solid theoretical background for improving women’s rights. Indeed, the aim of the paper is to discuss how the contextualist approach to the Qurʾānic text and its interpretation given by a number of prominent scholars is capable of promoting the issue of gender equality. The paper concludes that since (1) much of the gender inequality found in the primary sources of Islam as well as pre-modern Muslim writings is rooted in the natural cultural norms and standards of early Islamic societies and (2) since the context of today’s world is so different from that of the pre-modern era, the proposed models provide a solid theoretical framework for promoting women’s rights and gender equality.

Keywords: Islam, contextualism, Gender equality, Women’s Rights

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12 The Investment of Islamic Education Values toward Children in the Early Age through Story-Telling Method

Authors: Abdul Rofiq Badril Rizal Muzammil

Abstract:

Education is an absolute necessity for human’s life that one must fulfill for the entire life. Without education it is impossible for human to develop her/himself well. The education process is an effort to maintain a good behavior within one’s life. Good behavior will be absolutely achieved if it is taught to early-aged children. This paper focuses on how the story telling method enables teachers to make the students have the construction of good behavior and obtain the goal of national education in Indonesia. The targeted students would involve students in As-Solihin kindergarten, Salafiyah-Syafi’iyah Mumbulsari, Jember, Indonesia. Story is what early-aged children like most. Thus, it is a gorgeous chance to make story telling activity as a method to invest Islamic education values to children. This paper, however, also focuses on some deliberately important aspects which of course teachers need to consider including objectives and strategies of the method’s implementation. The teachers will be in need of knowing each student’s characteristic in the classroom so that it would enable them to select appropriate stories that fit best to early aged students. The selected stories are taken from Islamic stories that tell the life of Prophet and heroes of Islam as well as well-known persons in Islam. In addition, there will be a number of activities done in the classroom after the delivery of the story is over on purpose of leading students to have the fundamental foundation of how to build self-awareness in order they could understand better about the importance of being a well-behaved person. After reviewing relevant theories, secondary research and scholars’ opinion involved in all aspects of early-aged children behavior, the author concludes that by leveraging trusted sources, a proactive, co-operative and creative strategy, the teacher can successfully build up children’s good behavior by instilling the Islamic value toward early-aged children through story telling method.

Keywords: Islam, Children, story, early age

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11 Shariah Compliance Space Planning for Hotel Room Design

Authors: Syaza bt. Saifuddin, Rashidi bin Othman, Muhammad Hafizuddin Akmal bin Md Hashim, Ismail bin Jasmani, Noor Hanita bt. Abdul Majid

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the background of various concepts, approaches, terminologies used to describe the basic framework of an Islamic Hotel Room design. This paper reviews the theoretical views in establishing a suitable and optimum environment for Muslim as well as non-Muslim guests in hotel rooms while according to shariah. It involves a few research methodologies that requires the researcher to study on a few characteristics needed to create more efficient rooms in terms of social interaction, economic growth and other tolerable elements. This paper intends on revealing the elements that are vital and may contribute for hotels in achieving a more conclusive research on space planning for hotel rooms focusing on the shariah and Muslim guests. Malaysia is an Islamic country and has billion of tourists coming over for business and recreational purposes. Therefore, having a righteous environment that best suit this target user is important in terms of generating the economy as well as providing a better understanding to the community on the benefits of applying these qualities in a conventional resort design.

Keywords: Design, Islam, room, shariah compliant hotel

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10 Back to Basics: Where Is Allah? - A Survey of Generation Z Youth at the Canadian University of Dubai

Authors: Said Baadel

Abstract:

The belief of a heavenly God is enshrined to all Abrahamic religions which form the three major religions of the world today. Muslims believe in Allah who is above the seven heavens. The youth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) study Islamic courses as part of their high school curriculum and are required to take at least one Islamic course at the university level to gain credit hours towards their general education (GENED). This paper provides an insight of what the youth studying in the UAE think of where Allah is. Our analysis shows that a big number of Muslim youth were not sure, especially those from the Middle Eastern and Arab countries bringing to conclusion that this subject needs to be revisited again in the course work.

Keywords: Islam, Allah, Tawheed

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9 The Thought of Islamic Literature in Modern Malaysian Literature

Authors: Rosni bin Samah

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the emergence of the thought of ​​Islamic literature in the development of modern Malay literature in Malaysia. It examines the views, approaches and theories discussed and argued by literary scholars. Further, this study investigates the influence of the thought of Islamic literature on the development of modern Malay literature in Malaysia by examining the emergence of prominent scholars and bodies that organized competitions for writing Islamic literary works. Findings reveal that in the 70’s, the movement began to be accepted by the literary society. Government bodies played an important role in creating and disseminating the Islamic literary works.

Keywords: Islam, modern literature, Islamic literature, Malay literature

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8 Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture

Authors: Kairat Zatov, Tursun Gabitov, Maral Botaeva, Moldagaliyev Bauyrzhan, Saira Shamahay

Abstract:

Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan". Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter. The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion. Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to understand and forecast key social processes without taking into account the religious factor.

Keywords: Islam, Tolerance, Kazakhstan, fundamentalism, sectarianism, Shamanism, tradition and innovation, religious culture, spirit worship, extremism and civilization

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7 History of Appearance and Distribution of Hijab and Its Types

Authors: K. Zh. Monkebayeva, N. Zh. Baitenova, A. A. Mustafayevа

Abstract:

According to historical legend, after the revelation of the holy Qur'an, which gave the hijab compulsory and women were required to cover the head and body with a handkerchief, and the general form of clothing in her veil, Muslim women have begun to comply with this worthy tradition. This article discusses the history of the rise and spread of the hijab and its types. And here is described in detail types of hijab and its intended value, style hijab in different regions. Now wearing the hijab, hijab in general the problem is important not only in the Arab world, but also in the world.

Keywords: Islam, arab world, hijab, women's clothing

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6 Islam and Kazakh Society before Soviet Era

Authors: Akhmetbekova Akbota

Abstract:

The article considers religious aspects of Kazakh society pre-Soviet times. Studying the mental, political and spiritual content of Islam, the reasons for its wide distribution among the ancestors of the Kazakhs is analyzed. Interested Russians since the accession of the Kazakh Khanate to the Russian Empire more than once pointed out that Islam is a synthesis of Islam and Shamanism. But shamanism is a generalization of the name of religion, which took place prior to Islam in the land of the Kazakh people. Here we can see the elements of Zoroastrianism, Tengrianism, etc. This shows that the ancestors of the Kazakhs - Turkic people - not renounced the ancient beliefs completely and leave some portion of these religions as an integral part of the worldview of the people, by the device. Therefore, the founder of the Turkic Sufi Yasaui still has a huge impact on the religiosity of the Kazakhs. He managed elements of the ancient religion, which formed the basis of the Kazakhs world, interpreted in the Muslim perspective. The Russian authorities tried to quell by Islamization Kazakh people. But it was Islam that has revived the national consciousness of the Kazakh people.

Keywords: Islam, Adaptation, Sufism, Shamanism, Kazakh people

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5 Gender Component in the National Project of Kazakhstan

Authors: D.Nuketaeva, A.Kanagatova, I.Khan, B.Kylyshbayeva, G.Bektenova

Abstract:

This article describes the aspects of the formation of the national idea and national identity through the prism of gender control and its contradistinction to the obsolete, Soviet component. The role of females in ethnic and national projects is considered from the point of view of Dr. Nira Yuval-Davis: as biological reproducers of the ethnic communities- members; as reproducers of the boarders of ethnic/national groups; as central participants in the ideological reproduction of community and transducers of its culture; as symbols in ideology, reproduction and transformation of ethnic/national categories; and as participants of national, economical, political and military combats. The society of the transitional type uses the symbolic resources of the formation of gender component in the national project. The gender patterns act like cultural codes, executing the important ideological function in formation of the national female- image, i.e. the discussion on hijab - it-s not just the discussion on control over the female body, it-s the discussion on the metaphor of social order.

Keywords: Gender, Islam, Politics, Ideology, National Identity, nation, national idea, hijab, society of the transitional type

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4 Islam in Kazakhstan: Modern Trends and Stages of Development

Authors: B. Moldakhmet, G. Nassimova, A. Balapanova, А. Asan

Abstract:

According to the majority and to stereotypes in a simple everyman religious processes in the world in general, and Kazakhstan in particular, have only negative trends. The main reason for the author's opinion is seen in the fact that the media in the pursuit of ratings and sensation, more inclined to highlight the negative aspects of events in the country and the world of processes forgetting or casually mentioning the positive initiatives and achievements. That is why the article is mainly revealed positive trends in mind that the problems of fanaticism, terrorism and the confrontation of society on various issues, a lot has been written and detailed. This article describes the stages in the development of relations between religion and state, as well as institutionalization, networking and assistance in the correct orientation of religious activities in the country.

Keywords: Islam, Kazakhstan, religious activities, Organization of Islamic Cooperation

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3 Directors- Islamic Code of Ethics

Authors: Ahmad Saiful Azlin Puteh Salin, Norlela Kamaludin, Siti Khadijah Ab Manan, Mohd Shatari Abdul Ghafar

Abstract:

This paper discusses a new model of Islamic code of ethics for directors. Several corporate scandals and local (example Transmile and Megan Media) and overseas corporate (example Parmalat and Enron) collapses show that the current corporate governance and regulatory reform are unable to prevent these events from recurring. Arguably, the code of ethics for directors is under research and the current code of ethics only concentrates on binding the work of the employee of the organization as a whole, without specifically putting direct attention to the directors, the group of people responsible for the performance of the company. This study used a semi-structured interview survey of well-known Islamic scholars such as the Mufti to develop the model. It is expected that the outcome of the research is a comprehensive model of code of ethics based on the Islamic principles that can be applied and used by the company to construct a code of ethics for their directors.

Keywords: Islam, Ethics, code of ethics, director

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2 Islam and Fertility Regulations

Authors: Muhammad Hammad Lakhvi

Abstract:

Islam has a general principle of increase in population. But the Muslims are equally obliged to take care of health, education and the provisions etc. for their offspring and wives in the best possible way. The Muslims would have to regulate and manage the number of children, if any situation affects their duties regarding their wives or children. Islam accomplishes permissibility of temporary blockade in human fertility if someone faces any problem regarding health of mother or children. During the life of the Holy Prophet (SAW), Azl (coitus interruptus) was the only way for temporary spacing between the children. In technologically developed environment, the same can be resort through some advanced methodology or instrument of temporary blockade. Solid grounds are available in Islam that the fertility rate should be managed if any of the aspect of human quality is being affected.

Keywords: Islam, Muslims, Qur'an, Fertility Regulations

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1 Towards Good Accountability: The Role of Accounting in Islamic Religious Organisations

Authors: Hasan Basri Afifuddin, A.K Siti-Nabiha

Abstract:

Non-profit organizations, especially religious-based institutions, have long played a very important role in society. Nevertheless, scandals such as inefficient management and the use of unlawful fundraising activities have raised questions regarding the governance and accountability of these organizations. As such, the issues have attracted considerable research interest. However, there is still limited research on accountability in religious based organizations, especially in the context of Islamic religious organizations. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of accounting and accountability in religious organizations, specifically in Islamic religious establishments. The paper starts by looking at the conventional meaning and concept of accountability. This is followed by a discussion of the principles of accountability within the Islamic framework. In so doing, the history of the role of accounting within Muslim society and also the differences between the Islamic and conventional view of accountability are reviewed. Insights gained from previous research on accountability in faith based organizations are also discussed

Keywords: Accounting, Islam, Accountability, religiousorganization

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