**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**5

# Irreversibility Related Publications

##### 5 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Unit at Various Ambient Conditions

**Authors:**
Idris A. Elfeituri

**Abstract:**

This paper studies the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of a 285 MW gas turbine unit using the exergy concept. Based on the available exergy balance models developed, a computer program has been constructed to investigate the performance of the power plant under varying ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions. The variations of ambient temperature range from zero to 50 ºC and the relative humidity ranges from zero to 100%, while the unit load kept constant at 100% of the design load. The exergy destruction ratio and exergy efficiency are determined for each component and for the entire plant. The results show a moderate increase in the total exergy destruction ratio of the plant from 62.05% to 65.20%, while the overall exergy efficiency decrease from 38.2% to 34.8% as the ambient temperature increases from zero to 50 ºC at all relative humidity values. Furthermore, an increase of 1 ºC in ambient temperature leads to 0.063% increase in the total exergy destruction ratio and 0.07% decrease in the overall exergy efficiency. The relative humidity has a remarkable influence at higher ambient temperature values on the exergy destruction ratio of combustion chamber and on exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas but almost no effect on the total exergy destruction ratio and overall exergy efficiency. At 50 ºC ambient temperature, the exergy destruction ratio of the combustion chamber increases from 30% to 52% while the exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas decreases from 28% to 8% as the relative humidity increases from zero to 100%. In addition, exergy analysis reveals that the combustion chamber and exhaust gas are the main source of irreversibility in the gas turbine unit. It is also identified that the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio are considerably dependent on the variations in the ambient air temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the incorporation of the existing gas turbine plant with inlet air cooling and humidifier technologies should be considered seriously.

**Keywords:**
Performance,
Exergy,
Gas Turbine,
Irreversibility,
destruction

##### 4 Thermo-Exergy Optimization of Gas Turbine Cycle with Two Different Regenerator Designs

**Authors:**
Saria Abed,
Tahar Khir,
Ammar Ben Brahim

**Abstract:**

A thermo-exergy optimization of a gas turbine cycle with two different regenerator designs is established. A comparison was made between the performance of the two regenerators and their roles in improving the cycle efficiencies. The effect of operational parameters (the pressure ratio of the compressor, the ambient temperature, excess of air, geometric parameters of the regenerators, etc.) on thermal efficiencies, the exergy efficiencies, and irreversibilities were studied using thermal balances and quantitative exegetic equilibrium for each component and for the whole system. The results are given graphically by using the EES software, and an appropriate discussion and conclusion was made.

**Keywords:**
Heat Transfer,
Optimization,
Gas Turbine,
Thermal Efficiency,
Irreversibility,
regenerator,
exergy efficiency

##### 3 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

**Authors:**
Francis Chinweuba Eboh,
Peter AhlstrÃ¶m,
Tobias Richards

**Abstract:**

Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be s^{o}** _{msw}**= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K

^{-1}.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%

**≤**C

**≤**95.1%, 0.0%

**≤**H

**≤**14.3%, 0.0%

**≤**O

**≤**71.1%, 0.0

**≤**N

**≤**66.7%, 0.0%

**≤**S

**≤**42.1%, 0.0%

**≤**Cl

**≤**89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

**Keywords:**
waste-to-energy,
Irreversibility,
municipal solid waste,
absolute entropy

##### 2 Energy Analysis of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Combined Power Turbine

**Authors:**
M. Ayazi,
R. Karami,
B. Kamkari

**Abstract:**

Solid oxide fuel cells have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very highefficiency electric energy generation from hydrogen or other hydrocarbons, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out. Mass and exergy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of combined cycle. Moreover, different sources of irreversibilities within the SOFC stack have been discussed and a parametric study conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature as well as pressure on SOFC irreversibilities and its performance. In this investigation methane and hydrogen have been used for fueling the SOFC stack and combustion chamber.

**Keywords:**
Energy,
Irreversibility,
SOFC,
Power turbine

##### 1 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Dual Purpose Solar Collector

**Authors:**
I. Jafari,
A. Ershadi,
E. Najafpour,
N. Hedayat

**Abstract:**

Energy and exergy study of air-water combined solar collector which is called dual purpose solar collector (DPSC) is investigated. The method of ε - NTU is used. Analysis is performed for triangle channels. Parameters like the air flow rate and water inlet temperature are studied. Results are shown that DPSC has better energy and exergy efficiency than single collector. In addition, the triangle passage with water inlet temperature of 60O C has shown better exergy and energy efficiency.

**Keywords:**
Exergy,
Efficiency,
Solar Collector,
Irreversibility