Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

irradiation Related Publications

15 Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x

Authors: N. Kekelidze, B. Kvirkvelia, E. Khutsishvili, T. Qamushadze, D. Kekelidze, R. Kobaidze, Z. Chubinishvili, N. Qobulashvili, G. Kekelidze

Abstract:

On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.

Keywords: Solid Solutions, InP, irradiation, InAs

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14 Market Acceptance of Irradiated Food in the City of Piracicaba, Brazil

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Sônia Maria De Stefano Piedade, Valter Arthur

Abstract:

The increasing concern in relation to safety and hygiene of food consumption makes it so that food conservation is studied. Food radiation is a technique used for conservation, but many consumers associate this technique with dangers such as environmental contamination and development of diseases. This research had the objective of evaluating the acceptance of radiated products by the consumer market in the city of Piracicaba/SP-Brasil. The methodology adopted was the application of a questionnaire in the city’s supermarkets. After the application, the data was tabulated and analyzed. It was observed that the majority of interviewees would not eat irradiated food. The unfamiliarity and questions about the safety of irradiated food were the main causes of your rejection.

Keywords: Storage, questionnaire, irradiation, market acceptance

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13 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Hanife Genc, Akın Kuyulu

Abstract:

In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: Tuta Absoluta, irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer

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12 Preparation and Characterization of Photocatalyst for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol

Authors: Maksudur Rahman Khan, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, D. M. Reddy Prasad, Nur Sabrina Binti Rahmat, D. Sathiyamoorthy

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the environment is inevitable which is responsible for global warming. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel, such as methanol, methane etc. is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 emission. In the present work, Bi2S3/CdS was synthesized as an effective visible light responsive photocatalyst for CO2 reduction into methanol. The Bi2S3/CdS photocatalyst was prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst has been investigated for methanol production as a function of time. Gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was employed to analyze the product. The yield of methanol was found to increase with higher CdS concentration in Bi2S3/CdS and the maximum yield was obtained for 45 wt% of Bi2S3/CdS under visible light irradiation was 20 μmole/g. The result establishes that Bi2S3/CdS is favorable catalyst to reduce CO2 to methanol.

Keywords: Visible light, irradiation, photocatalyst, Carbon dioxide reduction

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11 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: Microstructures, Hardness, irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy

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10 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Steam

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Evolution, plasma, steam, irradiation, cluster formation, liquid droplets

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9 Operating Live E! Digital Meteorological Equipments Using Solar Photovoltaics

Authors: Eiko Takaoka, Ryohei Takahashi, Takashi Toyoda

Abstract:

We installed solar panels and digital meteorological equipments whose electrical power is supplied using PV on July 13, 2011. Then, the relationship between the electric power generation and the irradiation, air temperature, and wind velocity was investigated on a roof at a university. The electrical power generation, irradiation, air temperature, and wind velocity were monitored over two years. By analyzing the measured meteorological data and electric power generation data using PTC, we calculated the size of the solar panel that is most suitable for this system. We also calculated the wasted power generation using PTC with the measured meteorological data obtained in this study. In conclusion, to reduce the "wasted power generation", a smaller-size solar panel is required for stable operation.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, irradiation, Digital meteorological equipments, PTC

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8 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

 

Keywords: Interaction, fluctuations, irradiation, primary defects

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7 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowder

Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.

Keywords: Nanopowders, zinc oxide, irradiation, radiation stability

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6 Self-Organization of Radiation Defects: Temporal Dissipative Structures

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to radiation damage evolution is developed. Stable temporal behavior taking place in solids under irradiation are examined as phenomena of self-organization in nonequilibrium systems. Experimental effects of temporal self-organization in solids under irradiation are reviewed. Their essential common properties and features are highlighted and analyzed. Dynamical model to describe development of self-oscillation of density of point defects under stationary irradiation is proposed. The emphasis is the nonlinear couplings between rate of annealing and density of defects that determine the kind and parameters of an arising self-oscillation. The field of parameters (defect generation rate and environment temperature) at which self-oscillations develop is found. Bifurcation curve and self-oscillation period near it is obtained.

Keywords: Solids, Point Defects, irradiation, Temporal Selforganization

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5 Effects of Irradiation to Morphological, Physicochemical and Biocompatibility Properties of Carrageenan

Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Rizalinda L. De Leon, Lucille V. Abad

Abstract:

The characterization of κ-carrageenan could provide a better understanding of its functions in biological, medical and industrial applications. Chemical and physical analyses of carrageenan from seaweeds, Euchema cottonii L., were done to offer information on its properties and the effects of Co-60 γ-irradiation on its thermochemical characteristics. The structural and morphological characteristics of κ-carrageenan were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the composition, molecular weight and thermal properties were determined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further chemical analysis was done using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and functional characteristics in terms of biocompatibility were evaluated using cytotoxicity test.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, NMR, SEM, FTIR, physicochemical, GPC, irradiation, TGA, DSC, carrageenan

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4 Radiation Damage as Nonlinear Evolution of Complex System

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

Irradiated material is a typical example of a complex system with nonlinear coupling between its elements. During irradiation the radiation damage is developed and this development has bifurcations and qualitatively different kinds of behavior. The accumulation of primary defects in irradiated crystals is considered in frame work of nonlinear evolution of complex system. The thermo-concentration nonlinear feedback is carried out as a mechanism of self-oscillation development. It is shown that there are two ways of the defect density evolution under stationary irradiation. The first is the accumulation of defects; defect density monotonically grows and tends to its stationary state for some system parameters. Another way that takes place for opportune parameters is the development of self-oscillations of the defect density. The stationary state, its stability and type are found. The bifurcation values of parameters (environment temperature, defect generation rate, etc.) are obtained. The frequency of the selfoscillation and the conditions of their development is found and rated. It is shown that defect density, heat fluxes and temperature during self-oscillations can reach much higher values than the expected steady-state values. It can lead to a change of typical operation and an accident, e.g. for nuclear equipment.

Keywords: Solids, irradiation, self-oscillation, primary defects

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3 The effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Nutritional Properties of Functional Products of the Green Banana

Authors: Magda S. Taipina, Maria L. Garbelotti, Mariana G.B. Cadioli

Abstract:

Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the tropics and subtropics. Brazil accounts for about 9% of the world banana production. However, the production losses are as high as 30 to 40% and even much higher in some developing countries. The green banana flour is a complex carbohydrate source, including a high total starch (73.4%), resistant starch (17.5%) with functional properties. Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation. It has been performed due to the need of extending the shelf - life of foods, whilst maintaining their safety and avoiding one of the main concerns: the nutrient loss. In this work data about on the effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical analysis (carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, alimentary fiber, moistures and ashes) of Brazilian functional products (biscuits and bread) of the green banana pulp are presented. The caloric value was calculated. No significant difference was observed between the samples of irradiated and non – irradiated green banana biscuits with the following determinations: carbohydrates, proteins, alimentary fiber and ashes. Only a small significant difference was found in lipids (macronutrients). The results of physical chemical analysis of the irradiated and non- irradiated green banana bread non- irradiated showed no significant difference with the following determinations: carbohydrates, lipids (macronutrients), moisture, ashes and caloric value. A small difference was found in proteins (macronutrients). Irradiation of functional products (biscuits and bread) with doses of 1 and 3kGy maintained their original macronutrients content, showing good radioresistance.

Keywords: Functional food, Nutritional Value, irradiation

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2 Process Development of Safe and Ready-to-eat Raw Oyster Meat by Irradiation Technology

Authors: Pattama Ratana-Arporn, Pongtep Wilaipun

Abstract:

White scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) is often eaten raw and being the leading vehicle for foodborne disease, especially Salmonella Weltevreden which exposed the prominent and most resistant to radiation. Gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy was enough to eliminate S. Weltevreden contaminated in oyster meat at a level up to 5 log CFU/g while it still retain the raw characteristics and equivalent sensory quality as the non-irradiated one. Process development of ready-to-eat chilled oyster meat was conducted by shucking the meat, individually packed in plastic bags, subjected to 1 kGy gamma radiation at chilled condition and then stored in 4oC refrigerated temperature. Microbiological determination showed the absence of S. Weltevreden (5 log CFU/g initial inoculated) along the whole storage time of 30 days. Sensory evaluation indicated the decreasing in sensory scores along storage time which determining the product shelf life to be 18 days compared to 15 days of nonirradiated one. The most advantage of developed process was to provide the safe raw oyster to consumers and in addition sensory quality retained and 3-day extension shelf life also exist.

Keywords: Food Safety, decontamination, irradiation, oyster, Salmonella Weltevreden

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1 Preservation of Millet Flour by Refrigeration: Changes in Total Protein and Amino Acids Composition During Storage

Authors: Elfadil E. Babiker, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, ElShazali A. Mohamed

Abstract:

This work describes refrigeration effects during storage on total protein and amino acids composition of raw and processed flour of two pearl millet cultivars (Ashana and Dembi). The protein content of the whole raw flour was found to be 14.46 and 13.38% for Ashana and Dembi cultivars, respectively. Dehulling of the grains reduced the protein content to 13.38 and 12.67% for the cultivars, respectively. For both cultivars, the protein content of the whole and dehulled raw flour before and after cooking was slightly decreased when the flour was stored for 60 days even after refrigeration. The effect of refrigeration process in combination with the storage period, cooking or dehulling was found to be vary between amino acids and even between cultivars. Regardless of the storage period and processing method, the amino acids content was remained unchanged after refrigeration for both cultivars.

Keywords: Amino Acids, irradiation, protein content, millet, dehulling

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