Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

image watermarking Related Publications

10 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Omaima N. Ahmad AL-Allaf

Abstract:

Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, discrete wavelet transform, image watermarking

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9 Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking

Authors: Siraa Ben Ftima, Mourad Talbi, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.

Keywords: color image, secure, singular values decomposition, watermark, image watermarking, Grayscale image, Lifting wavelet transform

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8 A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel feature-based image watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Robustness, Zernike moments, invariance, image watermarking, Featurepoint

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7 A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Robustness, discrete cosine transform, image watermarking, Image normalization, Singularvalue decomposition

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6 A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Robustness, Zernike moments, image watermarking, Image normalization

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5 Robust Semi-Blind Digital Image Watermarking Technique in DT-CWT Domain

Authors: Samira Mabtoul, Elhassan Ibn Elhaj, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

In this paper a new robust digital image watermarking algorithm based on the Complex Wavelet Transform is proposed. This technique embeds different parts of a watermark into different blocks of an image under the complex wavelet domain. To increase security of the method, two chaotic maps are employed, one map is used to determine the blocks of the host image for watermark embedding, and another map is used to encrypt the watermark image. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: DT-CWT, Chaotic map, image watermarking

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4 A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia R. ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.

Keywords: Image Processing, Multimedia security, Wavelets, image watermarking

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3 A Wavelet-Based Watermarking Method Exploiting the Contrast Sensitivity Function

Authors: John N. Ellinas, Panagiotis Kenterlis

Abstract:

The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The current paper presents an approach for still image digital watermarking in which the watermark embedding process employs the wavelet transform and incorporates Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics. The sensitivity of a human observer to contrast with respect to spatial frequency is described by the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The strength of the watermark within the decomposition subbands, which occupy an interval on the spatial frequencies, is adjusted according to this sensitivity. Moreover, the watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges where distortions are less noticeable. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency.

Keywords: Human Visual System, Wavelet Transform, image watermarking, contrast sensitivity function

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2 A Dual Digital-Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has become an important tool for intellectual property protection and authentication. In this paper a watermarking technique is suggested that incorporates two watermarks in a host image for improved protection and robustness. A watermark, in form of a PN sequence (will be called the secondary watermark), is embedded in the wavelet domain of a primary watermark before being embedded in the host image. The technique has been tested using Lena image as a host and the camera man as the primary watermark. The embedded PN sequence was detectable through correlation among other five sequences where a PSNR of 44.1065 dB was measured. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the technique, the watermarked image was exposed to four types of attacks, namely compression, low pass filtering, salt and pepper noise and luminance change. In all cases the secondary watermark was easy to detect even when the primary one is severely distorted.

Keywords: Wavelets, DWT, image watermarking, watermarkingtechniques

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1 A Blind Digital Watermark in Hadamard Domain

Authors: Saeid Saryazdi, Hossein Nezamabadi-pour

Abstract:

A new blind gray-level watermarking scheme is described. In the proposed method, the host image is first divided into 4*4 non-overlapping blocks. For each block, two first AC coefficients of its Hadamard transform are then estimated using DC coefficients of its neighbor blocks. A gray-level watermark is then added into estimated values. Since embedding watermark does not change the DC coefficients, watermark extracting could be done by estimating AC coefficients and comparing them with their actual values. Several experiments are made and results suggest the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Steganography, image watermarking, Information Hiden

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