Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Image Compression Related Publications

27 New Efficient Method for Coding Color Images

Authors: Wajeb Gharibi, Walaa M.Abd-Elhafiez

Abstract:

In this paper a novel color image compression technique for efficient storage and delivery of data is proposed. The proposed compression technique started by RGB to YCbCr color transformation process. Secondly, the canny edge detection method is used to classify the blocks into the edge and non-edge blocks. Each color component Y, Cb, and Cr compressed by discrete cosine transform (DCT) process, quantizing and coding step by step using adaptive arithmetic coding. Our technique is concerned with the compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio, and produce better results than JPEG and more recent published schemes (like CBDCT-CABS and MHC). The provided experimental results illustrate the proposed technique that is efficient and feasible in terms of compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio.

Keywords: Image Compression, Quantization, color image, q-coder, edge-detection

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26 Colour Image Compression Method Based On Fractal Block Coding Technique

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Shimal Das

Abstract:

Image compression based on fractal coding is a lossy compression method and normally used for gray level images range and domain blocks in rectangular shape. Fractal based digital image compression technique provide a large compression ratio and in this paper, it is proposed using YUV colour space and the fractal theory which is based on iterated transformation. Fractal geometry is mainly applied in the current study towards colour image compression coding. These colour images possesses correlations among the colour components and hence high compression ratio can be achieved by exploiting all these redundancies. The proposed method utilises the self-similarity in the colour image as well as the cross-correlations between them. Experimental results show that the greater compression ratio can be achieved with large domain blocks but more trade off in image quality is good to acceptable at less than 1 bit per pixel.

Keywords: Image Compression, Iterated Function System (IFS), Fractal coding, YUV colour space

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25 Simulation Based VLSI Implementation of Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System Using Adjusted Binary Code & Golumb Rice Code

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Simulation based VLSI Implementation of FELICS (Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System) Algorithm is proposed to provide the lossless image compression and is implemented in simulation oriented VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated). To analysis the performance of Lossless image compression and to reduce the image without losing image quality and then implemented in VLSI based FELICS algorithm. In FELICS algorithm, which consists of simplified adjusted binary code for Image compression and these compression image is converted in pixel and then implemented in VLSI domain. This parameter is used to achieve high processing speed and minimize the area and power. The simplified adjusted binary code reduces the number of arithmetic operation and achieved high processing speed. The color difference preprocessing is also proposed to improve coding efficiency with simple arithmetic operation. Although VLSI based FELICS Algorithm provides effective solution for hardware architecture design for regular pipelining data flow parallelism with four stages. With two level parallelisms, consecutive pixels can be classified into even and odd samples and the individual hardware engine is dedicated for each one. This method can be further enhanced by multilevel parallelisms.

Keywords: Image Compression, compression ratio, pixel, Adjusted Binary code, Golumb Rice code, High Definition display, VLSI Implementation

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24 Quad Tree Decomposition Based Analysis of Compressed Image Data Communication for Lossy and Lossless Using WSN

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Quad Tree Decomposition based performance analysis of compressed image data communication for lossy and lossless through wireless sensor network is presented. Images have considerably higher storage requirement than text. While transmitting a multimedia content there is chance of the packets being dropped due to noise and interference. At the receiver end the packets that carry valuable information might be damaged or lost due to noise, interference and congestion. In order to avoid the valuable information from being dropped various retransmission schemes have been proposed. In this proposed scheme QTD is used. QTD is an image segmentation method that divides the image into homogeneous areas. In this proposed scheme involves analysis of parameters such as compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, bits per pixel in compressed image and analysis of difficulties during data packet communication in Wireless Sensor Networks. By considering the above, this paper is to use the QTD to improve the compression ratio as well as visual quality and the algorithm in MATLAB 7.1 and NS2 Simulator software tool.

Keywords: Image Compression, Wireless Sensor Networks, compression ratio, Quad tree decomposition, NS2 simulator

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23 Influence of Ambiguity Cluster on Quality Improvement in Image Compression

Authors: Ahmad Shahin, Safaa Al-Ali, Fadi Chakik

Abstract:

Image coding based on clustering provides immediate access to targeted features of interest in a high quality decoded image. This approach is useful for intelligent devices, as well as for multimedia content-based description standards. The result of image clustering cannot be precise in some positions especially on pixels with edge information which produce ambiguity among the clusters. Even with a good enhancement operator based on PDE, the quality of the decoded image will highly depend on the clustering process. In this paper, we introduce an ambiguity cluster in image coding to represent pixels with vagueness properties. The presence of such cluster allows preserving some details inherent to edges as well for uncertain pixels. It will also be very useful during the decoding phase in which an anisotropic diffusion operator, such as Perona-Malik, enhances the quality of the restored image. This work also offers a comparative study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a fuzzy clustering technique in detecting the ambiguity cluster without losing lot of the essential image information. Several experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of ambiguity concept in image compression. The coding results and the performance of the proposed algorithms are discussed in terms of the peak signal-tonoise ratio and the quantity of ambiguous pixels.

Keywords: Image Compression, anisotropic diffusion, Ambiguity Cluster, Fuzzy Clustering

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22 Quality Evaluation of Compressed MRI Medical Images for Telemedicine Applications

Authors: Seddeq E. Ghrare, Salahaddin M. Shreef

Abstract:

Medical image modalities such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), X-ray are adapted to diagnose disease. These modalities provide flexible means of reviewing anatomical cross-sections and physiological state in different parts of the human body. The raw medical images have a huge file size and need large storage requirements. So it should be such a way to reduce the size of those image files to be valid for telemedicine applications. Thus the image compression is a key factor to reduce the bit rate for transmission or storage while maintaining an acceptable reproduction quality, but it is natural to rise the question of how much an image can be compressed and still preserve sufficient information for a given clinical application. Many techniques for achieving data compression have been introduced. In this study, three different MRI modalities which are Brain, Spine and Knee have been compressed and reconstructed using wavelet transform. Subjective and objective evaluation has been done to investigate the clinical information quality of the compressed images. For the objective evaluation, the results show that the PSNR which indicates the quality of the reconstructed image is ranging from (21.95 dB to 30.80 dB, 27.25 dB to 35.75 dB, and 26.93 dB to 34.93 dB) for Brain, Spine, and Knee respectively. For the subjective evaluation test, the results show that the compression ratio of 40:1 was acceptable for brain image, whereas for spine and knee images 50:1 was acceptable.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Medical Image, Image Compression, Magnetic resonance imaging, discrete wavelet transform

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21 Statistical Distributions of the Lapped Transform Coefficients for Images

Authors: Vijay Kumar Nath, Deepika Hazarika, Anil Mahanta

Abstract:

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) based transform coding is very popular in image, video and speech compression due to its good energy compaction and decorrelating properties. However, at low bit rates, the reconstructed images generally suffer from visually annoying blocking artifacts as a result of coarse quantization. Lapped transform was proposed as an alternative to the DCT with reduced blocking artifacts and increased coding gain. Lapped transforms are popular for their good performance, robustness against oversmoothing and availability of fast implementation algorithms. However, there is no proper study reported in the literature regarding the statistical distributions of block Lapped Orthogonal Transform (LOT) and Lapped Biorthogonal Transform (LBT) coefficients. This study performs two goodness-of-fit tests, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and the 2- test, to determine the distribution that best fits the LOT and LBT coefficients. The experimental results show that the distribution of a majority of the significant AC coefficients can be modeled by the Generalized Gaussian distribution. The knowledge of the statistical distribution of transform coefficients greatly helps in the design of optimal quantizers that may lead to minimum distortion and hence achieve optimal coding efficiency.

Keywords: Image Compression, Lapped orthogonal transform, Lapped biorthogonal transform, KS test

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20 Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we developed the concept of supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact, supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say, supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: Image Compression, Super-resolution, Interpolation, General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units

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19 Image Transmission via Iterative Cellular-Turbo System

Authors: Ersin Gose, Kenan Buyukatak, Onur Osman, Osman N. Ucan

Abstract:

To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.

Keywords: Image Compression, Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA), Turbo Coding, Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS)

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18 Single Frame Supercompression of Still Images,Video, High Definition TV and Digital Cinema

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

Super-resolution is nowadays used for a high-resolution image produced from several low-resolution noisy frames. In this work, we consider the problem of high-quality interpolation of a single noise-free image. Such images may come from different sources, i.e., they may be frames of videos, individual pictures, etc. On the other hand, in the encoder we apply a downsampling via bidimen-sional interpolation of each frame, and in the decoder we apply a upsampling by which we restore the original size of the image. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. In fact, the mentioned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: Image Compression, Super-resolution, Interpolation, General-Purpose computation on Graphics ProcessingUnits

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17 Fast Cosine Transform to Increase Speed-up and Efficiency of Karhunen-Loève Transform for Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Juliana Gambini

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between two techniques of image compression. In the first case, the image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan. In the second one, we apply the Fast Cosine Transform to the image, and then the transformed image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan too. Later, in both cases, the Karhunen-Loève transform is applied to mentioned blocks. On the other hand, we present three new metrics based on eigenvalues for a better comparative evaluation of the techniques. Simulations show that the combined version is the best, with minor Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE), higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality. Finally, new technique was far superior to JPEG and JPEG2000.

Keywords: Image Compression, JPEG, JPEG2000, Fast Cosine Transform, Karhunen-Loève Transform, zig-zag scan

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16 A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression

Authors: Kamrul Hasan Talukder, Koichi Harada

Abstract:

The scientific community has invested a great deal of effort in the fields of discrete wavelet transform in the last few decades. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) associated with the vector quantization has been proved to be a very useful tool for the compression of image. However, the DWT is very computationally intensive process requiring innovative and computationally efficient method to obtain the image compression. The concurrent transformation of the image can be an important solution to this problem. This paper proposes a model of concurrent DWT for image compression. Additionally, the formal verification of the model has also been performed. Here the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) has been used as the formal verification tool. The system has been modeled in SMV and some properties have been verified formally.

Keywords: Image Compression, formal verification, discrete wavelettransform, Computation Tree Logic, Symbolic Model Verifier

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15 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.

Keywords: Image Compression, Haar's basis, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan

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14 Evaluation of Wavelet Filters for Image Compression

Authors: G. Sadashivappa, K. V. S. AnandaBabu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper to characterize a larger set of wavelet functions for implementation in a still image compression system using SPIHT algorithm. This paper discusses important features of wavelet functions and filters used in sub band coding to convert image into wavelet coefficients in MATLAB. Image quality is measured objectively using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and its variation with bit rate (bpp). The effect of different parameters is studied on different wavelet functions. Our results provide a good reference for application designers of wavelet based coder.

Keywords: Image Compression, Wavelet, PSNR, SPIHT, sub band

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13 Effectiveness of Contourlet vs Wavelet Transform on Medical Image Compression: a Comparative Study

Authors: Mehran Yazdi, Negar Riazifar

Abstract:

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has demonstrated far superior to previous Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and standard JPEG in natural as well as medical image compression. Due to its localization properties both in special and transform domain, the quantization error introduced in DWT does not propagate globally as in DCT. Moreover, DWT is a global approach that avoids block artifacts as in the JPEG. However, recent reports on natural image compression have shown the superior performance of contourlet transform, a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks, compared to DWT. It is mostly due to the optimality of contourlet in representing the edges when they are smooth curves. In this work, we investigate this fact for medical images, especially for CT images, which has not been reported yet. To do that, we propose a compression scheme in transform domain and compare the performance of both DWT and contourlet transform in PSNR for different compression ratios (CR) using this scheme. The results obtained using different type of computed tomography images show that the DWT has still good performance at lower CR but contourlet transform performs better at higher CR.

Keywords: Image Compression, DWT, computed tomography (CT), Discrete Contourlet Transform

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12 Image Compression Using Multiwavelet and Multi-Stage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P. Navaneethan

Abstract:

The existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties such as orthogonality, short support, linear phase symmetry, and a high order of approximation through vanishing moments simultaneously, which are very much essential for signal processing. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling function overcomes this problem. This paper presents a new image coding scheme based on non linear approximation of multiwavelet coefficients along with multistage vector quantization. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the results obtained from scalar wavelets.

Keywords: Image Compression, Multiwavelets, Multi-stagevector quantization

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11 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression

Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew

Abstract:

An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.

Keywords: Image Compression, Edge Detection, peak signal to noise ratio, Ground truth image

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10 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Parallel Computing, Image Compression, Wavelets, MPI

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9 Reversible, Embedded and Highly Scalable Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa, Iñaki Goirizelaia Ordorika

Abstract:

In this work a new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuous-tone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different importance levels from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each importance level are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several improvement levels.

Keywords: Embedded, Image Compression, Wavelet Transform, reversible transform, subcomponents, highly scalable

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8 Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression

Authors: K.Somasundaram, S.Domnic

Abstract:

A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.

Keywords: Image Compression, vector quantization, Residual Codebook

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7 Performance Analysis of Chrominance Red and Chrominance Blue in JPEG

Authors: Mamta Garg

Abstract:

While compressing text files is useful, compressing still image files is almost a necessity. A typical image takes up much more storage than a typical text message and without compression images would be extremely clumsy to store and distribute. The amount of information required to store pictures on modern computers is quite large in relation to the amount of bandwidth commonly available to transmit them over the Internet and applications. Image compression addresses the problem of reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. Performance of any image compression method can be evaluated by measuring the root-mean-square-error & peak signal to noise ratio. The method of image compression that will be analyzed in this paper is based on the lossy JPEG image compression technique, the most popular compression technique for color images. JPEG compression is able to greatly reduce file size with minimal image degradation by throwing away the least “important" information. In JPEG, both color components are downsampled simultaneously, but in this paper we will compare the results when the compression is done by downsampling the single chroma part. In this paper we will demonstrate more compression ratio is achieved when the chrominance blue is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance red in JPEG compression. But the peak signal to noise ratio is more when the chrominance red is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance blue in JPEG compression. In particular we will use the hats.jpg as a demonstration of JPEG compression using low pass filter and demonstrate that the image is compressed with barely any visual differences with both methods.

Keywords: Image Compression, Quantization, JPEG, discrete cosine transform, Color Space Conversion, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio & Compression Ratio

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6 Image Mapping with Cumulative Distribution Function for Quick Convergence of Counter Propagation Neural Networks in Image Compression

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Counter Propagation Neural Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is that the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbor with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative Distribution Function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used the Counter Propagation Neural Network yield high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: correlation, Image Compression, Counter Propagation Neural Networks, Cummulative Distribution Function

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5 A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate

Authors: Fahmi Kammoun, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.

Keywords: Image Compression, Wavelet Transforms, contrast sensitivity function, Human Visual System

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4 Improving Image Quality in Remote Sensing Satellites using Channel Coding

Authors: H. M. Behairy, M. S. Khorsheed

Abstract:

Among other factors that characterize satellite communication channels is their high bit error rate. We present a system for still image transmission over noisy satellite channels. The system couples image compression together with error control codes to improve the received image quality while maintaining its bandwidth requirements. The proposed system is tested using a high resolution satellite imagery simulated over the Rician fading channel. Evaluation results show improvement in overall system including image quality and bandwidth requirements compared to similar systems with different coding schemes.

Keywords: Image Compression, DCT, Image Transmission, Channel Coding, Error-Control Coding, Convolution Codes, Viterbi Algorithm, PCGC

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3 Optimal Image Compression Based on Sign and Magnitude Coding of Wavelet Coefficients

Authors: Mbainaibeye Jérôme, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms is a very powerful tools for image compression. One of its advantage is the provision of both spatial and frequency localization of image energy. However, wavelet transform coefficients are defined by both a magnitude and sign. While algorithms exist for efficiently coding the magnitude of the transform coefficients, they are not efficient for the coding of their sign. It is generally assumed that there is no compression gain to be obtained from the coding of the sign. Only recently have some authors begun to investigate the sign of wavelet coefficients in image coding. Some authors have assumed that the sign information bit of wavelet coefficients may be encoded with the estimated probability of 0.5; the same assumption concerns the refinement information bit. In this paper, we propose a new method for Separate Sign Coding (SSC) of wavelet image coefficients. The sign and the magnitude of wavelet image coefficients are examined to obtain their online probabilities. We use the scalar quantization in which the information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also examined. We show that the sign information and the refinement information may be encoded by the probability of approximately 0.5 only after about five bit planes. Two maps are separately entropy encoded: the sign map and the magnitude map. The refinement information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also entropy encoded. An algorithm is developed and simulations are performed on three standard images in grey scale: Lena, Barbara and Cameraman. Five scales are performed using the biorthogonal wavelet transform 9/7 filter bank. The obtained results are compared to JPEG2000 standard in terms of peak signal to noise ration (PSNR) for the three images and in terms of subjective quality (visual quality). It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the JPEG2000. The proposed method is also compared to other codec in the literature. It is shown that the proposed method is very successful and shows its performance in term of PSNR.

Keywords: Image Compression, Wavelet Transform, sign coding, magnitude coding

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2 Highly Scalable, Reversible and Embedded Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Iñaki Goiricelaia Ordorika, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa

Abstract:

A new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuoustone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different levels of importance from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each level of importance are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several enhance levels.

Keywords: Embedded, Image Compression, Wavelet Transform, highlyscalable, reversible transform, subcomponents

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1 Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets

Authors: M. Kutila, J. Viitanen

Abstract:

This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

Keywords: Image Compression, Wavelet, JPEG, VLC

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