Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

gain Related Publications

7 Design of Low Noise Amplifiers for 10 GHz Application

Authors: Makesh Iyer, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This work deals with the designing of an efficient low noise amplifier for 10.00 GHz applications. The amplifier is designed using Gallium Arsenide High Electron Mobility Transistor (GaAs HEMT) ATF – 36077 with inductive source degeneration technique which is one of the techniques to improve the stability of the potentially unstable device and make it unconditionally stable. Also, different substrates are used for designing the LNA to identify the suitable substrate that gives optimum results. It is observed that the noise immunity is more in Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designed using RT Duroid 5880 substrate. This design resulted in noise figure of 0.859 dB and power gain of 15.530 dB. The comparative analysis of the LNA design is discussed in this paper.

Keywords: gain, substrate, low noise amplifier, Noise Figure, distributed components

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6 An Approach to Flatten the Gain of Fiber Raman Amplifiers with Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: wdm, gain, FRA, pumping

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5 Evaluation of Short-Term Load Forecasting Techniques Applied for Smart Micro Grids

Authors: Xiaolei Hu, Enrico Ferrera, Riccardo Tomasi, Claudio Pastrone

Abstract:

Load Forecasting plays a key role in making today's and future's Smart Energy Grids sustainable and reliable. Accurate power consumption prediction allows utilities to organize in advance their resources or to execute Demand Response strategies more effectively, which enables several features such as higher sustainability, better quality of service, and affordable electricity tariffs. It is easy yet effective to apply Load Forecasting at larger geographic scale, i.e. Smart Micro Grids, wherein the lower available grid flexibility makes accurate prediction more critical in Demand Response applications. This paper analyses the application of short-term load forecasting in a concrete scenario, proposed within the EU-funded GreenCom project, which collect load data from single loads and households belonging to a Smart Micro Grid. Three short-term load forecasting techniques, i.e. linear regression, artificial neural networks, and radial basis function network, are considered, compared, and evaluated through absolute forecast errors and training time. The influence of weather conditions in Load Forecasting is also evaluated. A new definition of Gain is introduced in this paper, which innovatively serves as an indicator of short-term prediction capabilities of time spam consistency. Two models, 24- and 1-hour-ahead forecasting, are built to comprehensively compare these three techniques.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, gain, short-term load forecasting, radial basis function network, smart micro grid, linear regression

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4 Performance Enhancement of DWDM Systems Using HTE Configuration HTE Configuration for 1479-1555nm Wavelength Range

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, the gain spectrum of EDFA has been broadened by implementing HTE configuration for S and C band. On using this configuration an amplification bandwidth of 76nm ranging from 1479nm to 1555nm with a peak gain of 26dB has been obtained.

Keywords: gain, EDFA, C band, DWDM system, HTE, Hybrid Fiber Amplifier, S band

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3 Detection of Max. Optical Gain by Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Abdulamgid.T. Bouzed, Suleiman. M. Elhamali

Abstract:

The technical realization of data transmission using glass fiber began after the development of diode laser in year 1962. The erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in high speed networks allow information to be transmitted over longer distances without using of signal amplification repeaters. These kinds of fibers are doped with erbium atoms which have energy levels in its atomic structure for amplifying light at 1550nm. When a carried signal wave at 1550nm enters the erbium fiber, the light stimulates the excited erbium atoms which pumped with laser beam at 980nm as additional light. The wavelength and intensity of the semiconductor lasers depend on the temperature of active zone and the injection current. The present paper shows the effect of the diode lasers temperature and injection current on the optical amplification. From the results of in- and output power one may calculate the max. optical gain by erbium doped fiber amplifier.

Keywords: Lasers, temperature, gain, amplifier, erbium doped fiber

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2 Grooved Linear Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

Authors: Ayesha Aslam, F A Bhatti

Abstract:

A simple impedance matching technique for inset feed grooved microstrip patch antenna based on the concept of coplanar waveguide feed line has been developed and investigated for a printed antenna at X-Band frequency of 10GHz. The proposed technique has been used in the design of Linear Grooved Microstrip patch antenna array. The characteristics of the antenna are determined in terms of Return loss, VSWR, gain, radiation pattern etc. The measured and simulated results presented are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: gain, VSWR, radiation pattern, CPW Feed, return loss, inset feed, Microstrip patch

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1 Circular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna for KU-band

Authors: T.F.Lai, Wan Nor Liza Mahadi, Norhayati Soin

Abstract:

This paper present a circular patch microstrip array antenna operate in KU-band (10.9GHz – 17.25GHz). The proposed circular patch array antenna will be in light weight, flexible, slim and compact unit compare with current antenna used in KU-band. The paper also presents the detail steps of designing the circular patch microstrip array antenna. An Advance Design System (ADS) software is used to compute the gain, power, radiation pattern, and S11 of the antenna. The proposed Circular patch microstrip array antenna basically is a phased array consisting of 'n' elements (circular patch antennas) arranged in a rectangular grid. The size of each element is determined by the operating frequency. The incident wave from satellite arrives at the plane of the antenna with equal phase across the surface of the array. Each 'n' element receives a small amount of power in phase with the others. There are feed network connects each element to the microstrip lines with an equal length, thus the signals reaching the circular patches are all combined in phase and the voltages add up. The significant difference of the circular patch array antenna is not come in the phase across the surface but in the magnitude distribution.

Keywords: gain, radiation pattern, S-parameter, Circular patch microstrip array antenna

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