Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

froth flotation Related Publications

5 Optimal Consume of NaOH in Starches Gelatinization for Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Débora N. Sousa, Elenice M. S. Silva, Thales P. Fontes, Raphael S. Tomaz

Abstract:

Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.

Keywords: froth flotation, sodium hydroxide, gelatinization, starches and flours

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4 Jatropha curcas L. Oil Selectivity in Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Izabela L. A. Moraes, Elenice M. S. Silva, Carlos M. Silva Filho

Abstract:

In Brazil, most soils are acidic and low in essential nutrients required for the growth and development of plants, making fertilizers essential for agriculture. As the biggest producer of soy in the world and a major producer of coffee, sugar cane and citrus fruits, Brazil is a large consumer of phosphate. Brazilian’s phosphate ores are predominantly from igneous rocks showing a complex mineralogy, associated with carbonites and oxides, typically iron, silicon and barium. The adopted industrial concentration circuit for this type of ore is a mix between magnetic separation (both low and high field) to remove the magnetic fraction and a froth flotation circuit composed by a reverse flotation of apatite (barite’s flotation) followed by direct flotation circuit (rougher, cleaner and scavenger circuit). Since the 70’s fatty acids obtained from vegetable oils are widely used as lower-cost collectors in apatite froth flotation. This is a very effective approach to the apatite family of minerals, being that this type of collector is both selective and efficient (high recovery). This paper presents Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCO) as a renewable and sustainable source of fatty acids with high selectivity in froth flotation of apatite. JCO is considerably rich in fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid. The experimental campaign involved 216 tests using a modified Hallimond tube and two different minerals (apatite and quartz). In order to be used as a collector, the oil was saponified. The results found were compared with the synthetic collector, Fotigam 5806 produced by Clariant, which is composed mainly by soy oil. JCO showed the highest selectivity for apatite flotation with cold saponification at pH 8 and concentration of 2.5 mg/L. In this case, the mineral recovery was around 95%.

Keywords: froth flotation, selectivity, microflotation, Jatropha curcas L

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3 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati

Abstract:

This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Contact angle, froth flotation, Hydrophilic, ABS

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2 Laboratory Evaluation of the Flotation Response of a Copper Cobalt Oxide Ore to Gasoil-Rinkalore Mixtures

Authors: M. B. Kime, J. Ntambwe, J. Mwamba

Abstract:

Froth flotation remains to date as one of the most used metallurgical processes for concentrating metal-bearing minerals in ores. Oxide ores are relatively less amenable to froth flotation and require a judicious choice of reagents for the recovery of metals to be optimised. Laboratory batch flotation tests were conducted to determine the effect of two types of gasoil-rinkalore mixtures on the flotation response of a copper cobalt oxide ore sample. The head assay conducted on the initial ore sample showed that it contained about 2.90% of Cu, 0.12% of Co. Upon the flotation test work, the results obtained indicated that the concentrate obtained with use of the mixture gazoil-rinkalore RX yielded 8.24% Cu and 0.22% Co concentrate grades with recoveries of 76.0% Cu and 78.0% Co respectively. But, the concentrate obtained by use of the mixture gazoil-rinkalore RX3 yielded relatively bad results with 5.92% Cu and 0.18% Cu concentrate grades with recoveries of 70.3% Cu and 65.3% Co respectively.

Keywords: Copper, froth flotation, cobalt, Rinkalore RX, Rinkalore RX3, Shangolowe

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1 A Multistage Sulphidisation Flotation Procedure for a Low Grade Malachite Copper Ore

Authors: Tebogo P. Phetla, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

This study was carried out to develop a flotation procedure for an oxide copper ore from a Region in Central Africa for producing an 18% copper concentrate for downstream processing at maximum recovery from a 4% copper feed grade. The copper recoveries achieved from the test work were less than 50% despite changes in reagent conditions (multistage sulphidisation, use of RCA emulsion and mixture, use of AM 2, etc). The poor recoveries were attributed to the mineralogy of the ore from which copper silicates accounted for approximately 70% (mass) of the copper minerals in the ore. These can be complex and difficult to float using conventional flotation methods. Best results were obtained using basic sulphidisation procedures, a high flotation temperature and extended flotation residence time.

Keywords: Mineralogy, Recovery, froth flotation, Sulphidisation, Copper oxide ore

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