Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

fluidized bed Related Publications

11 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang

Abstract:

Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fluidized bed, slip flow, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, minimum fluidization velocity

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10 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, N. García-Hernando, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta

Abstract:

Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: Combustion, Reaction Rate, fluidized bed, olive stone, thermogravimetric analysis

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9 New Coating Materials Based On Mixtures of Shellac and Pectin for Pharmaceutical Products

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Tabatabaeifar, M. Helmis

Abstract:

Shellac is a natural polyester resin secreted by insects. Pectins are natural, non-toxic and water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the peels of citrus fruits or the leftovers of apples. Both polymers are allowed for the use in the pharmaceutical industry and as a food additive. SSB Aquagold® is the aqueous solution of shellac and can be used for a coating process as an enteric or controlled drug release polymer. In this study, tablets containing 10 mg methylene blue as a model drug were prepared with a rotary press. Those tablets were coated with mixtures of shellac and one of the pectin different types (i.e. CU 201, CU 501, CU 701 and CU 020) mostly in a 2:1 ratio or with pure shellac in a small scale fluidized bed apparatus. A stable, simple and reproducible three-stage coating process was successfully developed. The drug contents of the coated tablets were determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characterization of the surface and the film thickness were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the light microscopy. Release studies were performed in a dissolution apparatus with a basket. Most of the formulations were enteric coated. The dissolution profiles showed a delayed or sustained release with a lagtime of at least 4 h. Dissolution profiles of coated tablets with pure shellac had a very long lagtime ranging from 13 to 17.9 h and the slopes were quite high. The duration of the lagtime and the slope of the dissolution profiles could be adjusted by adding the proper type of pectin to the shellac formulation and by variation of the coating amount. In order to apply a coating formulation as a colon delivery system, the prepared film should be resistant against gastric fluid for at least 2 h and against intestinal fluid for 4-6 h. The required delay time was gained with most of the shellac-pectin polymer mixtures. The release profiles were fitted with the modified model of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the Hixson-Crowell model. A correlation coefficient (R²)> 0.99 was obtained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

Keywords: Coating, SEM, shellac, pectin, fluidized bed, release, colon delivery system, kinetic, methylene blue

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8 Study of Incineration of Acacia Wood Chips for Biomass Power Plant of the Royal Thai Navy in Sattahip, Chonburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Thanapong Suriyea, Teeratas Pornyungyuen, Koonlaya Kanokjaruvijit

Abstract:

This research is aimed to find optimal values of parameters of acacia wood chips combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed for electrification within the area of the Royal Thai Navy in Sattahip, Chonburi province, Thailand. The size of wood chips falls in the range of 25 mm in diameter. The bed temperature is set within the range of 800±10 oC with the air flow rate of 2.1-3.1 m/min corresponding to the air-fuel ratio between 0.71 to 1.03. The resulting thermal efficiency is approximately 95% with a thermal output of 474.76 kWth, which produced the electricity 0.131 kW-hr.

Keywords: Combustion, biomass, fluidized bed, Acacia Wood Chips

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7 Pre-germinated Parboiled Brown Rice Drying Using Fluidization Technique

Authors: Nattapol Poomsa-ad, Lamul Wiset

Abstract:

Pre-germinated parboiled brown rice or Khao hang (in Thai) is paddy which undergoing the processes of soaking, steaming, drying and dehusking to obtain the edible form for consumption. The objectives of this research were to study the kinetic of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice drying using fluidization technique and to study the properties of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice after drying. The dryings were performed at the different temperatures of 110, 120 and 130 oC at the bed depth of 2 cm with the air velocity of 1.98 m/s. The results found that the higher drying temperature led to the faster moisture reduction. After drying until the moisture content of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice was lower than 14%wet basis, samples were taken to determine various qualities such as percentage of head rice and L* a* b* color values. The shade drying was used as a control. The results found that the higher drying temperature resulted in the decrease of head rice percentage. For the color assessment, the trend of L* and a* values was increased with the drying temperature, while the b* value was not significantly difference (p › 0.05) by drying temperatures. However, the b value of drying by fluidized bed dryer was higher than the control.

Keywords: Grain, fluidized bed, dehydration, brown rice

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6 The Importance of 3D Mesh Generation for Large Eddy Simulation of Gas – Solid Turbulent Flows in a Fluidized Beds

Authors: G. González-Silva, E. M. Matos, W. P. Martignoni, M. Mori

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to show a procedure for mesh generation in a fluidized bed using large eddy simulations (LES) of a filtered two-fluid model. The experimental data were obtained by [1] in a laboratory fluidized bed. Results show that it is possible to use mesh with less cells as compared to RANS turbulence model with granular kinetic theory flow (KTGF). Also, the numerical results validate the experimental data near wall of the bed, which cannot be predicted by RANS.model.

Keywords: Mesh, fluidized bed, LES, Gas-Solid

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5 Experimental Investigation of a Novel Reaction in Reduction of Sulfates by Natural Gas as a Reducing Agent

Authors: Ali Ghiaseddin, Akram Nemati

Abstract:

In a pilot plant scale of a fluidized bed reactor, a reduction reaction of sodium sulfate by natural gas has been investigated. Natural gas is applied in this study as a reductant. Feed density, feed mass flow rate, natural gas and air flow rate (independent parameters)and temperature of bed and CO concentration in inlet and outlet of reactor (dependent parameters) were monitored and recorded at steady state. The residence time was adjusted close to value of traditional reaction [1]. An artificial neural network (ANN) was established to study dependency of yield and carbon gradient on operating parameters. Resultant 97% accuracy of applied ANN is a good prove that natural gas can be used as a reducing agent. Predicted ANN model for relation between other sources carbon gradient (accuracy 74%) indicates there is not a meaningful relation between other sources carbon variation and reduction process which means carbon in granule does not have significant effect on the reaction yield.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, fluidized bed, sulfide, sulfate, reduction by natural gas

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4 Optimum Operating Conditions for Direct Oxidation of H2S in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Mohammad Kazemeini, Moslem Fattahi, Fahimeh Golestani, Ali Amjadian

Abstract:

In this research a mathematical model for direct oxidization of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur in a fluidized bed reactor with external circulation was developed. As the catalyst is deactivated in the fluidized bed, it might be placed in a reduction tank in order to remove sulfur through heating above its dew point. The reactor model demonstrated via MATLAB software. It was shown that variations of H2S conversion as well as; products formed were reasonable in comparison with corresponding results of a fixed bed reactor. Through analyzing results of this model, it became possible to propose the main optimized operating conditions for the process considered. These conditions included; the temperature range of 100-130ºC and utilizing the catalyst as much as possible providing the highest bed density respect to dimensions of bed, economical aspects that the bed ever remained in fluidized mode. A high active and stable catalyst under the optimum conditions exhibited 100% conversion in a fluidized bed reactor.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, fluidized bed, H2S, optimum conditions, Direct oxidization

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3 Study of Heat Transfer in the Poly Ethylene Fluidized Bed Reactor Numerically and Experimentally

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei

Abstract:

In this research, heat transfer of a poly Ethylene fluidized bed reactor without reaction were studied experimentally and computationally at different superficial gas velocities. A multifluid Eulerian computational model incorporating the kinetic theory for solid particles was developed and used to simulate the heat conducting gas–solid flows in a fluidized bed configuration. Momentum exchange coefficients were evaluated using the Syamlal– O-Brien drag functions. Temperature distributions of different phases in the reactor were also computed. Good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimentally obtained data for the bed expansion ratio as well as the qualitative gas–solid flow patterns. The simulation and experimental results showed that the gas temperature decreases as it moves upward in the reactor, while the solid particle temperature increases. Pressure drop and temperature distribution predicted by the simulations were in good agreement with the experimental measurements at superficial gas velocities higher than the minimum fluidization velocity. Also, the predicted time-average local voidage profiles were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The study showed that the computational model was capable of predicting the heat transfer and the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-solid fluidized bed flows with reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Hydrodynamics, CFD, turbulence model, fluidized bed, Gas-solid flows

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2 An Experimental Study on Effects of Applying the Pulsating Flow to a Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed

Authors: Rezvan Alamian, Alireza Baniassadi, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi

Abstract:

There have been widespread applications of fluidized beds in industries which are related to the combination of gas-solid particles during the last decade. For instance, in order to crack the catalyses in petrochemical industries or as a drier in food industries. High capacity of fluidized bed in heat and mass transfer has made this device very popular. In order to achieve a higher efficiency of fluidized beds, a particular attention has been paid to beds with pulsating air flow. In this paper, a fluidized bed device with pulsating flow has been designed and constructed. Size of particles have been used during the test are in the range of 40 to 100μm. The purpose of this experimental test is to investigate the air flow regime, observe the particles- movement and measure the pressure loss along the bed. The effects of pulsation can be evaluated by comparing the results for both continuous and pulsating flow. Results of both situations are compared for various gas speeds. Moreover the above experiment is numerically simulated by using Fluent software and its numerical results are compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: Experiments, pressure loss, fluidized bed, FLUENT, pulsating flow, gas-solid particles

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1 Solid Circulation Rate and Gas Leakage Measurements in an Interconnected Bubbling Fluidized Beds

Authors: Ho-Jung Ryu, Seung-Yong Lee, Young Cheol Park, Moon-Hee Park

Abstract:

Two-interconnected fluidized bed systems are widely used in various processes such as Fisher-Tropsch, hot gas desulfurization, CO2 capture-regeneration with dry sorbent, chemical-looping combustion, sorption enhanced steam methane reforming, chemical-looping hydrogen generation system, and so on. However, most of two-interconnected fluidized beds systems require riser and/or pneumatic transport line for solid conveying and loopseals or seal-pots for gas sealing, recirculation of solids to the riser, and maintaining of pressure balance. The riser (transport bed) is operated at the high velocity fluidization condition and residence times of gas and solid in the riser are very short. If the reaction rate of catalyst or sorbent is slow, the riser can not ensure sufficient contact time between gas and solid and we have to use two bubbling beds for each reaction to ensure sufficient contact time. In this case, additional riser must be installed for solid circulation. Consequently, conventional two-interconnected fluidized bed systems are very complex, large, and difficult to operate. To solve these problems, a novel two-interconnected fluidized bed system has been developed. This system has two bubbling beds, solid injection nozzles, solid conveying lines, and downcomers. In this study, effects of operating variables on solid circulation rate, gas leakage between two beds have been investigated in a cold mode two-interconnected fluidized bed system. Moreover, long-term operation of continuous solid circulation up to 60 hours has been performed to check feasibility of stable operation.

Keywords: fluidized bed, gas leakage, Long-term operation, Solid circulation

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