Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

fluid flow Related Publications

8 Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations

Authors: S. Zare, M. Mazraehli, F. Mehrabani

Abstract:

In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.

Keywords: fluid flow, Underground Excavations, distinct element method, hydro-mechanical coupling, jointed rock mass

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7 Finite Volume Method for Flow Prediction Using Unstructured Meshes

Authors: Juhee LEE, Yongjun Lee

Abstract:

In designing a low-energy-consuming buildings, the heat transfer through a large glass or wall becomes critical. Multiple layers of the window glasses and walls are employed for the high insulation. The gravity driven air flow between window glasses or wall layers is a natural heat convection phenomenon being a key of the heat transfer. For the first step of the natural heat transfer analysis, in this study the development and application of a finite volume method for the numerical computation of viscous incompressible flows is presented. It will become a part of the natural convection analysis with high-order scheme, multi-grid method, and dual-time step in the future. A finite volume method based on a fully-implicit second-order is used to discretize and solve the fluid flow on unstructured grids composed of arbitrary-shaped cells. The integrations of the governing equation are discretised in the finite volume manner using a collocated arrangement of variables. The convergence of the SIMPLE segregated algorithm for the solution of the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is accelerated by using a sparse matrix solver such as BiCGSTAB. The method used in the present study is verified by applying it to some flows for which either the numerical solution is known or the solution can be obtained using another numerical technique available in the other researches. The accuracy of the method is assessed through the grid refinement.

Keywords: fluid flow, laminar flow, finite volume method, unstructured grid

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6 Sand Production Modelled with Darcy Fluid Flow Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: M. N. Nwodo, Y. P. Cheng, N. H. Minh

Abstract:

In the process of recovering oil in weak sandstone formations, the strength of sandstones around the wellbore is weakened due to the increase of effective stress/load from the completion activities around the cavity. The weakened and de-bonded sandstone may be eroded away by the produced fluid, which is termed sand production. It is one of the major trending subjects in the petroleum industry because of its significant negative impacts, as well as some observed positive impacts. For efficient sand management therefore, there has been need for a reliable study tool to understand the mechanism of sanding. One method of studying sand production is the use of the widely recognized Discrete Element Method (DEM), Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) which represents sands as granular individual elements bonded together at contact points. However, there is limited knowledge of the particle-scale behavior of the weak sandstone, and the parameters that affect sanding. This paper aims to investigate the reliability of using PFC3D and a simple Darcy flow in understanding the sand production behavior of a weak sandstone. An isotropic tri-axial test on a weak oil sandstone sample was first simulated at a confining stress of 1MPa to calibrate and validate the parallel bond models of PFC3D using a 10m height and 10m diameter solid cylindrical model. The effect of the confining stress on the number of bonds failure was studied using this cylindrical model. With the calibrated data and sample material properties obtained from the tri-axial test, simulations without and with fluid flow were carried out to check on the effect of Darcy flow on bonds failure using the same model geometry. The fluid flow network comprised of every four particles connected with tetrahedral flow pipes with a central pore or flow domain. Parametric studies included the effects of confining stress, and fluid pressure; as well as validating flow rate – permeability relationship to verify Darcy’s fluid flow law. The effect of model size scaling on sanding was also investigated using 4m height, 2m diameter model. The parallel bond model successfully calibrated the sample’s strength of 4.4MPa, showing a sharp peak strength before strain-softening, similar to the behavior of real cemented sandstones. There seems to be an exponential increasing relationship for the bigger model, but a curvilinear shape for the smaller model. The presence of the Darcy flow induced tensile forces and increased the number of broken bonds. For the parametric studies, flow rate has a linear relationship with permeability at constant pressure head. The higher the fluid flow pressure, the higher the number of broken bonds/sanding. The DEM PFC3D is a promising tool to studying the micromechanical behavior of cemented sandstones.

Keywords: fluid flow, parametric study, discrete element method, sand production/bonds failure

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5 Convective Interactions and Heat Transfer in a Czochralski Melt with a Model Phase Boundary of Two Different Shapes

Authors: R. Faiez, M. Mashhoudi, F. Najafi

Abstract:

Implicit in most large-scale numerical analyses of the crystal growth from the melt is the assumption that the shape and position of the phase boundary are determined by the transport phenomena coupled strongly to the melt hydrodynamics. In the present numerical study, the interface shape-effect on the convective interactions in a Czochralski oxide melt is described. It was demonstrated that thermocapillary flow affects inversely the phase boundaries of distinct shapes. The inhomogenity of heat flux and the location of the stagnation point at the crystallization front were investigated. The forced convection effect on the point displacement at the boundary found to be much stronger for the flat plate interface compared to the cone-shaped one with and without the Marangoni flow.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, fluid flow, interface shape, thermocapillary effect

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4 Heat Transfer Characteristics and Fluid Flow past Staggered Flat-Tube Bank Using CFD

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel-Rehim

Abstract:

A computational fluid dynamic (CFD-Fluent 6.2) for two-dimensional fluid flow is applied to predict the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of laminar and turbulent flow past staggered flat-tube bank. Effect of aspect ratio ((H/D)/(L/D)) on pressure drop, temperature, and velocity contour for laminar and turbulent flow over staggered flat-tube bank is studied. The theoretical results of the present models are compared with previously published experimental data of different authors. Satisfactory agreement is demonstrated. Also, the comparison between the present study and others analytical methods for the Re number with Nu number is done. The results show as the Reynolds number increases the maximum velocity in the passage between the upper and lower tubes increases. The comparisons show a fair agreement especially in the turbulent flow region. The good agreement of the data of this work with these recommended analytical methods validates the current study.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, CFD, fluid flow, staggered arrangement, Aspect ratio ((H/D)/(L/D)), tube bank, and turbulent flow

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3 Effect of Helium-Argon Mixtures on the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Authors: F. Roger, A. Traidia, A. Chidley, J. Schroeder, T. Marlaud

Abstract:

A transient finite element model has been developed to study the heat transfer and fluid flow during spot Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) on stainless steel. Temperature field, fluid velocity and electromagnetic fields are computed inside the cathode, arc-plasma and anode using a unified MHD formulation. The developed model is then used to study the influence of different helium-argon gas mixtures on both the energy transferred to the workpiece and the time evolution of the weld pool dimensions. It is found that the addition of helium to argon increases the heat flux density on the weld axis by a factor that can reach 6.5. This induces an increase in the weld pool depth by a factor of 3. It is also found that the addition of only 10% of argon to helium decreases considerably the weld pool depth, which is due to the electrical conductivity of the mixture that increases significantly when argon is added to helium.

Keywords: Thermal plasmas, fluid flow, GTAW, Marangoni effect, Shielding Gases

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2 Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, and Metallurgical Transformations in Arc Welding: Application to 16MND5 Steel

Authors: F. Roger, A. Traidia, B. Reynier

Abstract:

Arc welding creates a weld pool to realize continuity between pieces of assembly. The thermal history of the weld is dependent on heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool. The metallurgical transformation during welding and cooling are modeled in the literature only at solid state neglecting the fluid flow. In the present paper we associate a heat transfer – fluid flow and metallurgical model for the 16MnD5 steel. The metallurgical transformation model is based on Leblond model for the diffusion kinetics and on the Koistinen-Marburger equation for Marteniste transformation. The predicted thermal history and metallurgical transformations are compared to a simulation without fluid phase. This comparison shows the great importance of the fluid flow modeling.

Keywords: fluid flow, Arc welding, Weld pool, Metallurgical transformations

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1 Convective Heat Transfer of Viscoelastic Flow in a Curved Duct

Authors: M. Norouzi, M. H. Kayhani, M. R. H. Nobari, M. Karimi Demneh

Abstract:

In this paper, fully developed flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic materials in curved ducts with square cross section under constant heat flux have been investigated. Here, staggered mesh is used as computational grids and flow and heat transfer parameters have been allocated in this mesh with marker and cell method. Numerical solution of governing equations has being performed with FTCS finite difference method. Furthermore, Criminale-Eriksen- Filbey (CEF) constitutive equation has being used as viscoelastic model. CEF constitutive equation is a suitable model for studying steady shear flow of viscoelastic materials which is able to model both effects of the first and second normal stress differences. Here, it is shown that the first and second normal stresses differences have noticeable and inverse effect on secondary flows intensity and mean Nusselt number which is the main novelty of current research.

Keywords: fluid flow, Viscoelastic, curved duct, heat convection, CEF model, square cross section

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