Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Filtering Related Publications

12 Extracting Terrain Points from Airborne Laser Scanning Data in Densely Forested Areas

Authors: Ziad Abdeldayem, Jakub Markiewicz, Kunal Kansara, Laura Edwards

Abstract:

Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is one of the main technologies for generating high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). DTMs are crucial to several applications, such as topographic mapping, flood zone delineation, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrological modelling, spatial analysis, etc. Laser scanning system generates irregularly spaced three-dimensional cloud of points. Raw ALS data are mainly ground points (that represent the bare earth) and non-ground points (that represent buildings, trees, cars, etc.). Removing all the non-ground points from the raw data is referred to as filtering. Filtering heavily forested areas is considered a difficult and challenging task as the canopy stops laser pulses from reaching the terrain surface. This research presents an approach for removing non-ground points from raw ALS data in densely forested areas. Smoothing splines are exploited to interpolate and fit the noisy ALS data. The presented filter utilizes a weight function to allocate weights for each point of the data. Furthermore, unlike most of the methods, the presented filtering algorithm is designed to be automatic. Three different forested areas in the United Kingdom are used to assess the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the generated DTMs from the filtered data are accurate (when compared against reference terrain data) and the performance of the method is stable for all the heavily forested data samples. The average root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.35 m.

Keywords: Filtering, digital terrain models, airborne laser scanning, forested areas

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11 Extending the Quantum Entropy to Multidimensional Signal Processing

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

This paper treats different aspects of entropy measure in classical information theory and statistical quantum mechanics, it presents the possibility of extending the definition of Von Neumann entropy to image and array processing. In the first part, we generalize the quantum entropy using singular values of arbitrary rectangular matrices to measure the randomness and the quality of denoising operation, this new definition of entropy can be implemented to compare the performance analysis of filtering methods. In the second part, we apply the concept of pure state in quantum formalism to generalize the maximum entropy method for narrowband and farfield source localization problem. Several computer simulation results are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

Keywords: Filtering, Von Neumann Entropy, array, DOA, Maximum Entropy Method

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10 Real-Time Visualization Using GPU-Accelerated Filtering of LiDAR Data

Authors: Sašo Pečnik, Borut Žalik

Abstract:

This paper presents a real-time visualization technique and filtering of classified LiDAR point clouds. The visualization is capable of displaying filtered information organized in layers by the classification attribute saved within LiDAR datasets. We explain the used data structure and data management, which enables real-time presentation of layered LiDAR data. Real-time visualization is achieved with LOD optimization based on the distance from the observer without loss of quality. The filtering process is done in two steps and is entirely executed on the GPU and implemented using programmable shaders.

Keywords: Graphics, Lidar, Filtering, level-of-details, realtime visualization

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9 Techniques Used in String Matching for Network Security

Authors: Jamuna Bhandari

Abstract:

String matching also known as pattern matching is one of primary concept for network security. In this area the effectiveness and efficiency of string matching algorithms is important for applications in network security such as network intrusion detection, virus detection, signature matching and web content filtering system. This paper presents brief review on some of string matching techniques used for network security.

Keywords: Pattern, Filtering, honeypot, signature, string, network telescope

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8 REDUCER – An Architectural Design Pattern for Reducing Large and Noisy Data Sets

Authors: Apkar Salatian

Abstract:

To relieve the burden of reasoning on a point to point basis, in many domains there is a need to reduce large and noisy data sets into trends for qualitative reasoning. In this paper we propose and describe a new architectural design pattern called REDUCER for reducing large and noisy data sets that can be tailored for particular situations. REDUCER consists of 2 consecutive processes: Filter which takes the original data and removes outliers, inconsistencies or noise; and Compression which takes the filtered data and derives trends in the data. In this seminal article we also show how REDUCER has successfully been applied to 3 different case studies.

Keywords: Compression, Filtering, design pattern

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7 On One Mathematical Model for Filtration of Weakly Compressible Chemical Compound in the Porous Heterogeneous 3D Medium. Part I: Model Construction with the Aid of the Ollendorff Approach

Authors: Sharif E. Guseynov, Jekaterina V. Aleksejeva, Janis S. Rimshans

Abstract:

A filtering problem of almost incompressible liquid chemical compound in the porous inhomogeneous 3D domain is studied. In this work general approaches to the solution of twodimensional filtering problems in ananisotropic, inhomogeneous and multilayered medium are developed, and on the basis of the obtained results mathematical models are constructed (according to Ollendorff method) for studying the certain engineering and technical problem of filtering the almost incompressible liquid chemical compound in the porous inhomogeneous 3D domain. For some of the formulated mathematical problems with additional requirements for the structure of the porous inhomogeneous medium, namely, its isotropy, spatial periodicity of its permeability coefficient, solution algorithms are proposed. Continuation of the current work titled ”On one mathematical model for filtration of weakly compressible chemical compound in the porous heterogeneous 3D medium. Part II: Determination of the reference directions of anisotropy and permeabilities on these directions” will be prepared in the shortest terms by the authors.

Keywords: Filtering, Porous Media, Permeability, elliptic PDE

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6 Navigation and Self Alignment of Inertial Systems using Nonlinear H∞ Filters

Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) play a vital role along with global positioning devices in navigation of autonomous vehicles .These sensors are low cost ,easily available but depict colored noises and unpredictable discontinuities .Conventional filters like Kalman filters and Sigma point filters are not able to cope with nonwhite noises. This research has utilized H∞ filter in nonlinear frame work both with Kalman filter and Unscented filter for navigation and self alignment of an airborne vehicle. The system is simulated for colored noises and discontinuities and results are compared with not robust nonlinear filters. The results are found 40%-70% more robust against colored noises and discontinuities.

Keywords: MEMS, Filtering, integrated navigation, nonlinearfiltering, self alignment

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5 Approximation Approach to Linear Filtering Problem with Correlated Noise

Authors: Hong Son Hoang, Remy Baraille

Abstract:

The (sub)-optimal soolution of linear filtering problem with correlated noises is considered. The special recursive form of the class of filters and criteria for selecting the best estimator are the essential elements of the design method. The properties of the proposed filter are studied. In particular, for Markovian observation noise, the approximate filter becomes an optimal Gevers-Kailath filter subject to a special choice of the parameter in the class of given linear recursive filters.

Keywords: Filtering, Linear dynamical system, minimum meansquare filter, correlated noise

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4 Denoising by Spatial Domain Averaging for Wireless Local Area Network Terminal Localization

Authors: Diego Felix, Eugene Hyun, Michael McGuire, Mihai Sima

Abstract:

Terminal localization for indoor Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) is critical for the deployment of location-aware computing inside of buildings. A major challenge is obtaining high localization accuracy in presence of fluctuations of the received signal strength (RSS) measurements caused by multipath fading. This paper focuses on reducing the effect of the distance-varying noise by spatial filtering of the measured RSS. Two different survey point geometries are tested with the noise reduction technique: survey points arranged in sets of clusters and survey points uniformly distributed over the network area. The results show that the location accuracy improves by 16% when the filter is used and by 18% when the filter is applied to a clustered survey set as opposed to a straight-line survey set. The estimated locations are within 2 m of the true location, which indicates that clustering the survey points provides better localization accuracy due to superior noise removal.

Keywords: Filtering, wireless LAN, position measurement, Radio navigation

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3 Adaptive Non-linear Filtering Technique for Image Restoration

Authors: S. K. Satpathy, S. Panda, K. K. Nagwanshi, S. K. Nayak, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Removing noise from the any processed images is very important. Noise should be removed in such a way that important information of image should be preserved. A decisionbased nonlinear algorithm for elimination of band lines, drop lines, mark, band lost and impulses in images is presented in this paper. The algorithm performs two simultaneous operations, namely, detection of corrupted pixels and evaluation of new pixels for replacing the corrupted pixels. Removal of these artifacts is achieved without damaging edges and details. However, the restricted window size renders median operation less effective whenever noise is excessive in that case the proposed algorithm automatically switches to mean filtering. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed in terms of Mean Square Error [MSE], Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio [PSNR], Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improved [SNRI], Percentage Of Noise Attenuated [PONA], and Percentage Of Spoiled Pixels [POSP]. This is compared with standard algorithms already in use and improved performance of the proposed algorithm is presented. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that a single algorithm can replace several independent algorithms which are required for removal of different artifacts.

Keywords: Noise, Filtering, Imagerestoration, Decision Based Algorithm

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2 Image Restoration in Non-Linear Filtering Domain using MDB approach

Authors: S. K. Satpathy, S. Panda, K. K. Nagwanshi, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new technique based on nonlinear Minmax Detector Based (MDB) filter for image restoration. The aim of image enhancement is to reconstruct the true image from the corrupted image. The process of image acquisition frequently leads to degradation and the quality of the digitized image becomes inferior to the original image. Image degradation can be due to the addition of different types of noise in the original image. Image noise can be modeled of many types and impulse noise is one of them. Impulse noise generates pixels with gray value not consistent with their local neighborhood. It appears as a sprinkle of both light and dark or only light spots in the image. Filtering is a technique for enhancing the image. Linear filter is the filtering in which the value of an output pixel is a linear combination of neighborhood values, which can produce blur in the image. Thus a variety of smoothing techniques have been developed that are non linear. Median filter is the one of the most popular non-linear filter. When considering a small neighborhood it is highly efficient but for large window and in case of high noise it gives rise to more blurring to image. The Centre Weighted Mean (CWM) filter has got a better average performance over the median filter. However the original pixel corrupted and noise reduction is substantial under high noise condition. Hence this technique has also blurring affect on the image. To illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach, the proposed new scheme has been simulated along with the standard ones and various restored performance measures have been compared.

Keywords: Noise, Restoration, Filtering, PSNR, Minmax Detector Based (MDB), centre weighted mean filter

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1 Detecting Defects in Textile Fabrics with Optimal Gabor Filters

Authors: K. L. Mak, P. Peng

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of automated defect detection for textile fabrics and proposes a new optimal filter design method to solve this problem. Gabor Wavelet Network (GWN) is chosen as the major technique to extract the texture features from textile fabrics. Based on the features extracted, an optimal Gabor filter can be designed. In view of this optimal filter, a new semi-supervised defect detection scheme is proposed, which consists of one real-valued Gabor filter and one smoothing filter. The performance of the scheme is evaluated by using an offline test database with 78 homogeneous textile images. The test results exhibit accurate defect detection with low false alarm, thus showing the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme. To evaluate the detection scheme comprehensively, a prototyped detection system is developed to conduct a real time test. The experiment results obtained confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed detection scheme.

Keywords: Filtering, Textile Fabrics, Defect Detection, Gabor function, Gaborwavelet networks

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