Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

fast Fourier transform (FFT) Related Publications

7 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio

Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal

Abstract:

As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.

Keywords: fast Fourier transform (FFT), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary user (PU), secondary user (SU)

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6 Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm

Authors: K. B. Jayanthi, C. Paramasivam

Abstract:

An innovative approach to develop modified scaling free CORDIC based two parallel pipelined Multipath Delay Commutator (MDC) FFT and IFFT architectures for radix 22 FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2n based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Parallel Processing, fast Fourier transform (FFT), pipelining, Coordinate Rotational Digital Computer(CORDIC), Complex multiplier, Inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT), Multipath delay Commutator (MDC), modified scaling free CORDIC, radix-2^2

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5 Vibration Analysis of Gas Turbine SIEMENS 162MW - V94.2 Related to Iran Power Plant Industry in Fars Province

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis of most critical equipment is considered as one of the most challenging activities in preventive maintenance. Utilities are heart of the process in big industrial plants like petrochemical zones. Vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems of these kinds of equipments are developed too much in recent years. On the other hand, there are too much operation factors like inlet and outlet pressures and temperatures that should be monitored. In this paper, some of the most effective concepts and techniques related to gas turbine vibration analysis are discussed. In addition, a gas turbine SIEMENS 162MW - V94.2 vibration case history related to Iran power industry in Fars province is explained. Vibration monitoring system and machinery technical specification are introduced. Besides, absolute and relative vibration trends, turbine and compressor orbits, Fast Fourier transform (FFT) in absolute vibrations, vibration modal analysis, turbine and compressor start up and shut down conditions, bode diagrams for relative vibrations, Nyquist diagrams and waterfall or three-dimensional FFT diagrams in startup and trip conditions are discussed with relative graphs. Furthermore, Split Resonance in gas turbines is discussed in details. Moreover, some updated vibration monitoring system, blade manufacturing technique and modern damping mechanism are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, utility, Gas Turbine, fast Fourier transform (FFT), time wave form (TWF), non-contact probe, turbine compressor, vibration data collector, Relative Vibration, Absolute Vibration, Split Resonance

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4 Vibration, Lubrication and Machinery Consideration for a Mixer Gearbox Related to Iran Oil Industries

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

In this paper, some common gearboxes vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems are explained. In addition, an experimental gearbox vibration analysis is discussed through a critical case history for a mixer gearbox related to Iran oil industry. The case history also consists of gear manufacturing (machining) recommendations, lubrication condition of gearbox and machinery maintenance activities that caused reduction in noise and vibration of the gearbox. Besides some of the recent patents and innovations in gearboxes, lubrication and vibration monitoring systems explained. Finally micro pitting and surface fatigue in pinion and bevel of mentioned horizontal to vertical gearbox discussed in details.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, fast Fourier transform (FFT), Gear box, time wave form (TWF), gear mesh frequency (GMF), Shock Pulse measurement (SPM), bearing condition unit (BCU), pinion, bevel gear, micro pitting, surface fatigue

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3 Hydraulic Unbalance in Oil Injected Twin Rotary Screw Compressor Vibration Analysis (A Case History Related to Iran Oil Industries)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis of screw compressors is one of the most challenging cases in preventive maintenance. This kind of equipment considered as vibration bad actor facilities in industrial plants. On line condition monitoring systems developed too much in recent years. The high frequency vibration of ball bearings, gears, male and female caused complex fast Fourier transform (FFT) and time wave form (TWF) in screw compressors. The male and female randomly are sent to balance shop for balancing operation. This kind of operation usually caused some bending in rotors during the process that could cause further machining in such equipment. This kind of machining operation increased the vibration analysis complexity beside some process characteristic abnormality like inlet and out let pressure and temperature. In this paper mechanical principal and different type of screw compressors explained. Besides, some new condition monitoring systems and techniques for screw compressors discussed. Finally, one of the common behavior of oil injected twin rotary screw compressors called hydraulic unbalance that usually occurred after machining operation of male or female and have some specific characteristics in FFT and TWF discussed in details through a case history related to Iran oil industries.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, fast Fourier transform (FFT), time wave form (TWF), twin screw compressor, oil injected screw compressor, Hydraulic unbalance and rotor unbalance

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2 Vibration Analysis of an Alstom Typhoon Gas Turbine Power Plant Related to Iran Oil Industry

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis is the most important factor in preventive maintenance. Gas turbine vibration analysis is also one of the most challenging categories in most critical equipment monitoring systems. Utilities are heart of the process in big industrial plants like petrochemical zones. Vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems of this kind of equipment developed too much in recent years. On the other hand, too much operation condition consideration in this kind of equipment should be adjusted properly like inlet and outlet pressure and temperature for both turbine and compressor. In this paper the most important tools and hypothesis used for analyzing of gas turbine power plants discussed in details through a real case history related to an Alstom Typhoon gas turbine power plant in Iran oil industries. In addition, the basic principal of vibration behavior caused by mechanical unbalance in gas turbine rotor discussed in details.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, Gas Turbine, fast Fourier transform (FFT), phase angle, time wave form (TWF)

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1 Detecting Cavitation in a Vertical Sea water Centrifugal Lift Pump Related to Iran Oil Industry Cooling Water Circulation System

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Cavitation is one of the most well-known process faults that may occur in different industrial equipment especially centrifugal pumps. Cavitation also may happen in water pumps and turbines. Sometimes cavitation has been severe enough to wear holes in the impeller and damage the vanes to such a degree that the impeller becomes very ineffective. More commonly, the pump efficiency will decrease significantly during cavitation and continue to decrease as damage to the impeller increases. Typically, when cavitation occurs, an audible sound similar to ‘marbles’ or ‘crackling’ is reported to be emitted from the pump. In this paper, the most effective monitoring items and techniques in detecting cavitation discussed in details. Besides, some successful solutions for solving this problem for sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pump discussed through a case history related to Iran oil industry. Furthermore, balance line modification, strainer choking and random resonance in sea water pumps discussed. In addition, a new Method for diagnosing mechanical conditions of sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pumps introduced. This method involves disaggregating bus current by device into disaggregated currents having correspondences with operating currents in response to measured bus current. Moreover, some new patents and innovations in mechanical sea water pumping and cooling systems discussed in this paper.

Keywords: cavitation, Vibration analysis, centrifugal pump, fast Fourier transform (FFT), strainer, time wave form (TWF), Vertical Pump, Sea Water Pump, Balance Line

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