Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

eye tracking Related Publications

8 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland

Abstract:

Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: Biometrics, Fixation, saccades, eye tracking, heat map, area of interest, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, time to first fixation

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7 Implicit Responses for Assessment of Autism Based on Natural Behaviors Obtained Inside Immersive Virtual Environment

Authors: E. Olmos-Raya, A. Cascales Martínez, N. Minto de Sousa, M. Alcañiz Raya

Abstract:

The late detection and subjectivity of the assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) imposed a difficulty for the children’s clinical and familiar environment. The results showed in this paper, are part of a research project about the assessment and training of social skills in children with ASD, whose overall goal is the use of virtual environments together with physiological measures in order to find a new model of objective ASD assessment based on implicit brain processes measures. In particular, this work tries to contribute by studying the differences and changes in the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) and Eye Tracking (ET) between a typical development group (TD group) and an ASD group (ASD group) after several combined stimuli using a low cost Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). Subjects were exposed to a virtual environment that showed natural scenes that stimulated visual, auditory and olfactory perceptual system. By exposing them to the IVE, subjects showed natural behaviors while measuring SCR and ET. This study compared measures of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N = 18) with a control group of subjects with typical development (N=10) when exposed to three different conditions: only visual (V), visual and auditory (VA) and visual, auditory and olfactory (VAO) stimulation. Correlations between SCR and ET measures were also correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) test. SCR measures showed significant differences among the experimental condition between groups. The ASD group presented higher level of SCR while we did not find significant differences between groups regarding DF. We found high significant correlations among all the experimental conditions in SCR measures and the subscale of ADOS test of imagination and symbolic thinking. Regarding the correlation between ET measures and ADOS test, the results showed significant relationship between VA condition and communication scores.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, autism, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, immersive virtual environment

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6 The Importance of Applying Established Web Site Design Principles on an Online Performance Management System

Authors: R. W. Brown, P. J. Blignaut

Abstract:

An online performance management system was evaluated, and recommendations were made to improve the system. The study shows the effects of not adhering to the established web design principles and conventions. Furthermore, the study indicates that if the online performance management system is not well designed, it may have negative effects on the overall usability of the system and these negative effects will have consequences for both the employer and employees. The evaluation was done in terms of the usability metrics of effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. Effectiveness was measured in terms of the success rate with which users could execute prescribed tasks in a sandbox system. Efficiency was expressed in terms of the time it took participants to understand what is expected of them and to execute the tasks. Post-test questionnaires were used in order to determine the satisfaction of the participants. Recommendations were made to improve the usability of the online performance management system.

Keywords: Human resource management, Performance Management, Usability, eye tracking

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5 Human Factors as the Main Reason of the Accident in Scaffold Use Assessment

Authors: Krzysztof J. Czarnocki, E. Czarnocka, K. Szaniawska

Abstract:

Main goal of the research project is Scaffold Use Risk Assessment Model (SURAM) formulation, developed for the assessment of risk levels as a various construction process stages with various work trades. Finally, in 2016, the project received financing by the National Center for Research and development according to PBS3/A2/19/2015–Research Grant. The presented data, calculations and analyzes discussed in this paper were created as a result of the completion on the first and second phase of the PBS3/A2/19/2015 project. Method: One of the arms of the research project is the assessment of worker visual concentration on the sight zones as well as risky visual point inadequate observation. In this part of research, the mobile eye-tracker was used to monitor the worker observation zones. SMI Eye Tracking Glasses is a tool, which allows us to analyze in real time and place where our eyesight is concentrated on and consequently build the map of worker's eyesight concentration during a shift. While the project is still running, currently 64 construction sites have been examined, and more than 600 workers took part in the experiment including monitoring of typical parameters of the work regimen, workload, microclimate, sound vibration, etc. Full equipment can also be useful in more advanced analyses. Because of that technology we have verified not only main focus of workers eyes during work on or next to scaffolding, but we have also examined which changes in the surrounding environment during their shift influenced their concentration. In the result of this study it has been proven that only up to 45.75% of the shift time, workers’ eye concentration was on one of three work-related areas. Workers seem to be distracted by noisy vehicles or people nearby. In opposite to our initial assumptions and other authors’ findings, we observed that the reflective parts of the scaffoldings were not more recognized by workers in their direct workplaces. We have noticed that the red curbs were the only well recognized part on a very few scaffoldings. Surprisingly on numbers of samples, we have not recognized any significant number of concentrations on those curbs. Conclusion: We have found the eye-tracking method useful for the construction of the SURAM model in the risk perception and worker’s behavior sub-modules. We also have found that the initial worker's stress and work visual conditions seem to be more predictive for assessment of the risky developing situation or an accident than other parameters relating to a work environment.

Keywords: Occupational Safety, Scaffolding, eye tracking, accident assessment model

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4 Affirming Students’ Attention and Perceptions on Prezi Presentation via Eye Tracking System

Authors: Mona Masood, Norshazlina Shaik Othman

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate graduate students’ visual attention and perceptions of a Prezi presentation. Ten postgraduate master students were presented with a Prezi presentation at the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The eye movement indicators such as dwell time, average fixation on the areas of interests, heat maps and focus maps were abstracted to indicate the students’ visual attention. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the students’ perception of the Prezi presentation in terms of text, slide design, images, layout and overall presentation. The result revealed that the students paid more attention to the text followed by the images and sub heading presented through the Prezi presentation.

Keywords: Visual Attention, eye tracking, Prezi, visual perception

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3 Eye-Gesture Analysis for Driver Hazard Awareness

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Maguid, Siti Nor Hafizah binti Mohd Zaid, Abdel-Hamid Soliman

Abstract:

Because road traffic accidents are a major source of death worldwide, attempts have been made to create Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) able to detect vehicle, driver and environmental conditions that are cues for possible potential accidents. This paper presents continued work on a novel Nonintrusive Intelligent Driver Assistance and Safety System (Ni-DASS) for assessing driver attention and hazard awareness. It uses two onboard CCD cameras – one observing the road and the other observing the driver-s face. The windscreen is divided into cells and analysis of the driver-s eye-gaze patterns allows Ni-DASS to determine the windscreen cell the driver is focusing on using eye-gesture templates. Intersecting the driver-s field of view through the observed windscreen cell with subsections of the camera-s field of view containing a potential hazard allows Ni-DASS to estimate the probability that the driver has actually observed the hazard. Results have shown that the proposed technique is an accurate enough measure of driver observation to be useful in ADAS systems.

Keywords: eye tracking, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), Driver Hazard Awareness, Driver Vigilance

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2 Optometric-lab: a Stereophotogrammetry Tool for Eye Movements Records

Authors: E. F. P. Leme, L. J. R. Lopez, D. G. Goroso

Abstract:

In this paper as showed a non-invasive 3D eye tracker for optometry clinical applications. Measurements of biomechanical variables in clinical practice have many font of errors associated with traditional procedments such cover test (CT), near point of accommodation (NPC), eye ductions (ED), eye vergences (EG) and, eye versions (ES). Ocular motility should always be tested but all evaluations have a subjective interpretations by practitioners, the results is based in clinical experiences, repeatability and accuracy don-t exist. Optometric-lab is a tool with 3 (tree) analogical video cameras triggered and synchronized in one acquisition board AD. The variables globe rotation angle and velocity can be quantified. Data record frequency was performed with 27Hz, camera calibration was performed in a know volume and image radial distortion adjustments.

Keywords: Optometry, Eye Movements, strabismus, eye tracking

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1 A Study of Visual Attention in Diagnosing Cerebellar Tumours

Authors: Al-Khalid Othman, Kuryati Kipli, Kasumawati Lias, Dayang Azra Awang Mat, Ade Syaheda Wani Marzuki, Nurdiani Zamhari

Abstract:

Visual attention allows user to select the most relevant information to ongoing behaviour. This paper presents a study on; i) the performance of people measurements, ii) accurateness of people measurement of the peaks that correspond to chemical quantities from the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) graphs and iii) affects of people measurements to the algorithm-based diagnosis. Participant-s eye-movement was recorded using eye-tracker tool (Eyelink II). This experiment involves three participants for examining 20 MRS graphs to estimate the peaks of chemical quantities which indicate the abnormalities associated with Cerebellar Tumours (CT). The status of each MRS is verified by using decision algorithm. Analysis involves determination of humans-s eye movement pattern in measuring the peak of spectrograms, scan path and determining the relationship of distributions of fixation durations with the accuracy of measurement. In particular, the eye-tracking data revealed which aspects of the spectrogram received more visual attention and in what order they were viewed. This preliminary investigation provides a proof of concept for use of the eye tracking technology as the basis for expanded CT diagnosis.

Keywords: Visual, Pattern, eye tracking, fixation durations, scan paths, spectrograms

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