Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Enzymes Related Publications

4 Influence of Degradative Enzymatic Activities on the Shelf Life of Ready-to-Eat Prickly Pear Fruits

Authors: D. Scalone, R. Palmeri, F. Licciardello, G. Muratore, A. Todaro, G. Spagna

Abstract:

Prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica L. Miller) belongs to the Cactaceae family. This species is very sensitive to low storage temperatures (< 5°C) which cause damages. The fruits can be peeled, suitably packaged and successfully commercialized as a ready-to-eat product. The main limit to the extension of the shelf life is the production of off-flavors due to different factors, the growth of microorganisms and the action of endogenous enzymes. Lipoxygenase (LOX) and Pectinesterase (PE) are involved in fruit degradation. In particular, LOX pathway is directly responsible for lipid oxidation, and the subsequent production of off-flavours, while PE causes the softening of fruit during maturation. They act on the texture and shelf-life of post-harvest, packaged fruits, as a function of the the grown of microorganisms and packaging technologies used. The aim of this work is to compare the effect of different packaging technologies on the shelf life extension of ready-to-eat prickly pear fruits with regards for the enzymes activities.

Keywords: packaging, Enzymes, Shelf Life, prickly pear

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3 Prevention of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Catheter by Coating Enzymes/ Gentamycin/ EDTA

Authors: Niraj A. Ghanwate, P V Thakare, P R Bhise, Ashish Dhanke, Shubhangi Apotikar

Abstract:

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) account for an estimated 25-40% nosocomial infection, out of which 90% are associated with urinary catheter, called Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The microbial populations within CAUTI frequently develop as biofilms. In the present study, microbial contamination of indwelling urinary catheters was investigated. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates was determined by tissue culture plate method. Prevention of biofilm formation in the urinary catheter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined by coating the catheter with some enzymes, gentamycin and EDTA. It was found that 64% of the urinary catheters get contaminated during the course of catheterization. Of the total 6 isolates, biofilm formation was seen in 100% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli, 90% in Enterococci, 80% in Klebsiella and 66% in S. aureus. It was noted that the biofilm production by Pseudomonas was prolonged by 7 days in amylase, 8 days in protease, 6 days in lysozyme, 7days in gentamycin and 5 days in EDTA treated catheter.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biofilm, Enzymes, EDTA, CAUTI

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2 Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Filamentous Cyanobacterial Species to an Organochlorine Insecticide - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10- Hexachloro-1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a-Hexahydro-6, 9- Methano-2, 4, 3-Benzodioxathiepine-3-Oxide

Authors: Nirmal J.I. Kumar, Anubhuti A. Bora, Manmeet K. Amb

Abstract:

Application of pesticides in the paddy fields has deleterious effects on non-target organisms including cyanobacteria which are photosynthesizing and nitrogen fixing micro-organisms contributing significantly towards soil fertility and crop yield. Pesticide contamination in the paddy fields has manifested into a serious global environmental concern. To study the effect of one such pesticide, three cyanobacterial strains; Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica were selected for their stress responses to an Organochlorine insecticide - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10-hexachloro-1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a-hexahydro-6, 9-methano-2, 4, 3- benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide, with reference to their photosynthesic pigments-chlorophyll-a and carotenoids as well as accessory pigments-phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin), stress induced biochemical metabolites like carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenols and enzymes-nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and succinate dehydrogenase. All the three cyanobacterial strains were adversely affected by the insecticide doses and inhibition was dose dependent. Reduction in photosynthetic and accessory pigments, metabolites, nitrogen fixing and respiratory enzymes of the test organisms were accompanied with an initial increase in their total protein at lower Organochlorine doses. On the other hand, increased amount of phenols in all the insecticide treated concentrations was indicative of stressed activities of the organisms.

Keywords: Enzymes, Pigments, endosulfan, biochemical metabolites

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1 Improving the Utilization of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf Meal with Cellulase-Glucanase-Xylanase Combination and Selected Probiotic in Broiler Diets

Authors: Ayodeji Fasuyi

Abstract:

Telfairia occidentalis is a leafy vegetable commonly grown in the tropics for nutritional benefits. The use of enzymes and probiotics is becoming prominent due to the ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in many parts of the world. It is conceived that with enzymes and probiotics additives, fibrous leafy vegetables can be incorporated into poultry feeds as protein source. However, certain antinutrients were also found in the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis. Four broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated for the two phases of the broiler experiments. A mixture of fiber degrading enzymes, Roxazyme G2 (combination of cellulase, glucanase and xylanase) and probiotics (Turbotox), a growth promoter, were used in broiler diets at 1:1. The Roxazyme G2/Turbotox mixtures were used in diets containing four varying levels of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal (TOLM) at 0, 10, 20 and 30%. Diets 1 were standard broiler diets without TOLM and Roxazyme G2 and Turbotox additives. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had enzymes and probiotics additives. Certain mineral elements such as Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in notable quantities viz. 2.6 g/100 g, 1.2 g/100 g, 6.2 g/100 g, 5.1 g/100 g, 4.7 g/100 g, 5875 ppm, 182 ppm, 136 ppm and 1036 ppm, respectively. Phytin, phytin-P, oxalate, tannin and HCN were also found in ample quantities viz. 189.2 mg/100 g, 120.1 mg/100 g, 80.7 mg/100 g, 43.1 mg/100 g and 61.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The average weight gain was highest at 46.3 g/bird/day for birds on 10% TOLM diet but similar (P > 0.05) to 46.2 g/bird/day for birds on 20% TOLM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.27 was the lowest and optimum for birds on 10% TOLM although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 obtained for birds on 20% TOLM. FCR of 2.61 was the highest at 2.61 for birds on 30% TOLM diet. The lowest FCR of 2.27 was obtained for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 for birds on 20% TOLM diet. Most carcass characteristics and organ weights were similar (P > 0.05) for the experimental birds on the different diets except for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length. The values for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds on the TOLM diets. The nitrogen retention had the highest value of 72.37 ± 0.10% for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 71.54 ± 1.89 obtained for birds on the control diet without TOLM and enzymes/probiotics mixture. There was evidence of a better utilization of TOLM as a plant protein source. The carcass characteristics and organ weights all showed evidence of uniform tissue buildup and muscles development particularly in diets containing 10% of TOLM level. There was also better nitrogen utilization in birds on the 10% TOLM diet. Considering the cheap cost of TOLM, it is envisaged that its introduction into poultry feeds as a plant protein source will ultimately reduce the cost of poultry feeds.

Keywords: Probiotics, Enzymes, Additives, Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal

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