Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Emissions Related Publications

28 The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries

Authors: Chinwendu R. Nnabalu, Gioia Falcone, Imma Bortone

Abstract:

Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which the raw material (crude oil) is converted to finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries, requiring optimised processes in the context of engineering design. Following the first stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 per cent quantity is attainable in the gasoline pool with further conversion of the downgraded product of crude oil (residue from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. Effective removal of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires greater separation efficiency and involves an enormous environmental significance. The FCC unit is primarily a reactor and regeneration system which employs cyclone systems for separation.  Catalyst losses in FCC cyclones lead to high particulate matter emission on the regenerator side and fines carryover into the product on the reactor side. This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of FCC unit design criteria in terms of technical performance and compliance with environmental legislation. A systematic review of state-of-the-art FCC technology was carried out, identifying its key technical challenges and sources of emissions.  Case studies of petroleum refineries in Nigeria were assessed against selected global case studies. The review highlights the need for further modelling investigations to help improve FCC design to more effectively meet product specification requirements while complying with stricter environmental legislation.

Keywords: Design, Emissions, fluid catalytic cracking, petroleum refineries

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27 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Semin, Nilam S. Octaviani

Abstract:

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: Emissions, Diesel Engine, technical characteristics, dual fuel engine

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26 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad

Abstract:

This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: Emissions, Gasoline engine performance, alcohol blends

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25 Warm Mix and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: A Greener Road Approach

Authors: Meor Othman Hamzah, Lillian Gungat, Jan Valentin, Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

Abstract:

Utilization of a high percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) requires higher production temperatures and consumes more energy. High production temperature expedites the aging of bitumen in RAP, which could affect the mixture performance. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive enables reduced production temperatures as a result of viscosity reduction. This paper evaluates the integration of a high percentage of RAP with a WMA additive known as RH-WMA. The optimum dosage of RH-WMA was determined from basic properties tests. A total of 0%, 30% and 50% RAP contents from two roads sources were modified with RH-WMA. The modified RAP bitumen were examined for viscosity, stiffness, rutting resistance and greenhouse gas emissions. The addition of RH-WMA improved the flow of bitumen by reducing the viscosity, and thus, decreased the construction temperature. The stiffness of the RAP modified bitumen reduced with the incorporation of RH-WMA. The positive improvement in rutting resistance was observed on bitumen with the addition of RAP and RH-WMA in comparison with control. It was estimated that the addition of RH-WMA could potentially reduce fuel usage and GHG emissions by 22 %. Hence, the synergy of RAP and WMA technology can be an alternative in green road construction.

Keywords: viscosity, Emissions, Stiffness, reclaimed asphalt pavement, WMA additive

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24 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: Performance, Emissions, AVL Boost, SI engine, micro emulsion

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23 Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Hendrick Maxil Zárate Rocha, Ricardo da Silva Pereira, Manoel Fernandes Martins Nogueira, Carlos R. Pereira Belchior, Maria Emilia de Lima Tostes

Abstract:

This study investigates experimentally the effects of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature. In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15, 20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.

Keywords: Performance, Hydrogen, Emissions, Dual fuel, Diesel Engine, combustion analysis

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22 A Theoretical Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of the Jet Engine Emissions

Authors: Jamal S. Yassin

Abstract:

This paper is to formulate a mathematical model to predict the amounts of the emissions produced from the combustion process of the gas turbine unit of the jet engine. These emissions have bad impacts on the environment if they are out of standards, which cause real threats to all type of life on the earth. The amounts of the emissions from the gas turbine engine are functions to many operational and design factors. In landing-takeoff (LTO) these amounts are not the same as in taxi or cruise of the plane using jet engines, because of the difference in the activity period during these operating modes. These emissions can be affected by several physical and chemical variables, such as fuel type, fuel to air ratio or equivalence ratio, flame temperature, combustion pressure, in addition to some inlet conditions such as ambient temperature and air humidity. To study the influence of these variables on the amounts of these emissions during the combustion process in the gas turbine unit, a computer program has been developed by using the visual basic 6 software. Here, the analysis of the combustion process is carried out by considering it as a chemical reaction with shifting equilibrium to find the products of the combustion of the octane fuel, at different equivalence ratios, compressor pressure ratios (CPR) and combustion temperatures. The results obtained have shown that there is noticeable influence of the equivalence ratio, CPR, and the combustion temperature on the amounts of the main emissions which are considered pollutants, such as CO, CO2 and NO.

Keywords: Emissions, equivalence ratio, mathematical model, gas turbine unit, shifting equilibrium

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21 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma

Abstract:

Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: biofuels, Emissions, Computational analysis, Jatropha curcus

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20 Estimation of the Road Traffic Emissions and Dispersion in the Developing Countries Conditions

Authors: Hicham Gourgue, Ahmed Aharoune, Ahmed Ihlal

Abstract:

We present in this work our model of road traffic emissions (line sources) and dispersion of these emissions, named DISPOLSPEM (Dispersion of Poly Sources and Pollutants Emission Model). In its emission part, this model was designed to keep the consistent bottom-up and top-down approaches. It also allows to generate emission inventories from reduced input parameters being adapted to existing conditions in Morocco and in the other developing countries. While several simplifications are made, all the performance of the model results are kept. A further important advantage of the model is that it allows the uncertainty calculation and emission rate uncertainty according to each of the input parameters. In the dispersion part of the model, an improved line source model has been developed, implemented and tested against a reference solution. It provides improvement in accuracy over previous formulas of line source Gaussian plume model, without being too demanding in terms of computational resources. In the case study presented here, the biggest errors were associated with the ends of line source sections; these errors will be canceled by adjacent sections of line sources during the simulation of a road network. In cases where the wind is parallel to the source line, the use of the combination discretized source and analytical line source formulas minimizes remarkably the error. Because this combination is applied only for a small number of wind directions, it should not excessively increase the calculation time.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Urban Transport, Emissions, Dispersion, line sources, road traffic

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19 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH4 emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH4 emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH4 emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: Emissions, methane, Solid Waste, landfills

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18 An Experimental Investigation of Petrodiesel and Cotton Seed Biodiesel (CSOME) in Diesel Engine

Authors: P. V. Rao, Jaedaa Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Biodiesel is widely investigated to solve the twin problem of depletion of fossil fuel and environmental degradation. The main objective of the present work is to compare performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of biodiesel derived from cotton seed oil in a diesel engine with the baseline results of petrodiesel fuel. Tests have been conducted on a single cylinder, four stroke CIDI diesel engine with a speed of 1500 rpm and a fixed compression ratio of 17.5 at different load conditions. The performance parameters evaluated include brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, indicated mean effective pressure, mechanical efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature. Regarding combustion study, cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, net heat release rate, cumulative heat release, mean gas temperature, mass fraction burned, and fuel line pressure were evaluated. The emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, un-burnt hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke opacity were also measured by a smoke meter and an exhaust gas analyzer and compared with baseline results. The brake thermal efficiency of cotton seed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was lower than that of petrodiesel and brake specific fuel consumption was found to be higher. However, biodiesel resulted in the reduction of carbon dioxide, un-burnt hydrocarbon, and smoke opacity at the expense of nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide emissions for biodiesel was higher at maximum output power. It has been found that the combustion characteristics of cotton seed oil methyl ester closely followed those of standard petrodiesel. The experimental results suggested that biodiesel derived from cotton seed oil could be used as a good substitute to petrodiesel fuel in a conventional diesel without any modification.

Keywords: Combustion, Performance, Biodiesel, Emissions, Diesel Engine, Cotton seed

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17 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending palm kernel shell (PKS) with polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: Combustion, CFD, Emissions, Solid Waste, gasification, Gas Turbine Combustor, Syngas and Waste to Energy

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16 Performance and Emission Prediction in a Biodiesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Methyl Ester Using RBF Neural Networks

Authors: Shivakumar, G. S. Vijay, P. Srinivas Pai, B. R. Shrinivasa Rao

Abstract:

In the present study, RBF neural networks were used for predicting the performance and emission parameters of a biodiesel engine. Engine experiments were carried out in a 4 stroke diesel engine using blends of diesel and Honge methyl ester as the fuel. Performance parameters like BTE, BSEC, Tex and emissions from the engine were measured. These experimental results were used for ANN modeling. RBF center initialization was done by random selection and by using Clustered techniques. Network was trained by using fixed and varying widths for the RBF units. It was observed that RBF results were having a good agreement with the experimental results. Networks trained by using clustering technique gave better results than using random selection of centers in terms of reduced MRE and increased prediction accuracy. The average MRE for the performance parameters was 3.25% with the prediction accuracy of 98% and for emissions it was 10.4% with a prediction accuracy of 80%.

Keywords: Emissions, performance parameters, radial basis function networks, fuzzy c means

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15 Developing Emission Factors of Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions for Construction Sites in the Middle East Area

Authors: Hala A. Hassan, Vasiliki K. Tsiouri, Konstantinos E. Konstantinos

Abstract:

Fugitive particulate matter (PM) is a major source of airborne pollution in the Middle East countries. The meteorological conditions and topography of the area makes it highly susceptible to wind-blown particles which raise many air quality concerns. Air quality tools such as field monitoring, emission factors and dispersion modeling have been used in previous research studies to analyze the release and impacts of fugitive PM in the region. However, these tools have been originally developed based on experiments made for European and North American regions. In this work, an experimental campaign was conducted on April-May 2014 in a construction site in Doha city, Qatar. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the applicability of the existing emission factors for construction sites in dry and arid areas like the Middle East.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Middle East, Construction, Emissions, fugitive particulate matter

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14 Effects of IPPC Permits on Ambient Air Quality

Authors: C. Cafaro, P. Ceci, L. De Giorgi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to give an assessment of environmental effects of IPPC permit conditions of installations that are in specific territory with high concentration of industrial activities. The IPPC permit is the permit that each operator should hold to operate the installation as stated by the directive 2010/75/UE on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control), known as IED (Industrial Emissions Directive). The IPPC permit includes all the measures necessary to achieve a high level of protection of the environment as a whole, also defining the monitoring requirements as measurement methodology, frequency and evaluation procedure. The emissions monitoring of a specific plant may also give indications of the contribution of these emissions on the air quality of a definite area. So, it is clear that the IPPC permits are important tools both to improve the environmental framework and to achieve the air quality standards, assisting to assess the possible industrial sources contributions to air pollution.

Keywords: Air quality, Emissions, IPPC, IED, permits, large combustion plants

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13 Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a Variable Compression Ratio Diesel Engine Fueled with Karanj Biodiesel and Its Blends

Authors: Ajay V. Kolhe, R. E. Shelke, S. S. Khandare

Abstract:

The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate matters. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio engine when fueled with Karanja (Pongamia) methyl ester and its 10-50 % blends with diesel (on a volume basis) are investigated and compared with standard diesel. The suitability of karanja methyl ester as a biofuel has been established in this study. The useful brake power obtained is similar to diesel fuel for all loads. Experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, variable load and at compression ratios of 17.5:1 and 18.5:1. The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, combustion pressures and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate longer ignition delay, maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass fraction burnt at higher compression ratio for pongamia oil methyl ester when compared to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for pongamia oil methyl ester blends and diesel has been calculated and the blend B20 is found to give maximum thermal efficiency. The blends when used as fuel results in reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and increase in nitrogen oxides emissions. PME as an oxygenated fuel generated more complete combustion, which means increased torque and power. This is also supported with higher thermal efficiencies of the PME blends. NOx is slightly increased due to the higher combustion temperature and the presence of fuel oxygen with the blend at full load. PME as a new Biodiesel and its blends can be used in diesel engines without any engine modification.

Keywords: Combustion, Performance, Biodiesel, Emissions, Variable compression ratio CI engine

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12 Combustion and Emission of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel and Hydrogen-Methane Mixture

Authors: J. H. Zhou, C. S. Cheung, C. W. Leung

Abstract:

The present study conducted experimental investigation on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using diesel as pilot fuel and methane, hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixture as gaseous fuels at 1800 rev min-1. The effect of gaseous fuel on peak cylinder pressure and heat release is modest at low to medium loads. At high load, the high combustion temperature and high quantity of pilot fuel contribute to better combustion efficiency for all kinds of gaseous fuels and increases the peak cylinder pressure. Enrichment of hydrogen in methane gradually increases the peak cylinder pressure. The brake thermal efficiency increases with higher hydrogen fraction at lower loads. Hydrogen addition in methane contributed to a proportional reduction of CO/CO2/HC emission without penalty of NOx. For particulate emission, methane and hydrogen, could both suppress the particle emission. 30% hydrogen fraction in methane is observed to be best in reducing the particulate emission.

Keywords: Emissions, Diesel Engine, combustion characteristics, methane/hydrogen mixture

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11 Improvement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder S.I. Engine Operated on Blends of CNG and Hydrogen

Authors: Sarbjot Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of a single cylinder Enfield engine using an electronically controlled fuel injection system which was developed to carry out exhaustive tests using neat CNG, and mixtures of hydrogen in compressed natural gas (HCNG) as 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by energy. Experiments were performed at 2000 and 2400 rpm with wide open throttle and varying the equivalence ratio. Hydrogen which has fast burning rate, when added to compressed natural gas, enhances its flame propagation rate. The emissions of HC, CO, decreased with increasing percentage of hydrogen but NOx was found to increase. The results indicated a marked improvement in the brake thermal efficiency with the increase in percentage of hydrogen added. The improved thermal efficiency was clearly observed to be more in lean region as compared to rich region. This study is expected to reduce vehicular emissions along with increase in thermal efficiency and thus help in reduction of further environmental degradation.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Emissions, CNG, HCNG

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10 Recent Developments in Electric Vehicles for Passenger Car Transport

Authors: Amela Ajanovic

Abstract:

Electric vehicles are considered as technology which can significantly reduce the problems related to road transport such as increasing GHG emissions, air pollutions and energy import dependency. The core objective of this paper is to analyze the current energetic, ecological and economic characteristics of different types of electric vehicles. The major conclusions of this analysis are: The high investments cost are the major barrier for broad market breakthrough of battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. For battery electric vehicles also the limited driving range states a key obstacle. The analyzed hybrids could in principle serve as a bridging technology. However, due to their tank-to-wheel emissions they cannot state a proper solution for urban areas. Finally, the most important perception is that also battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are environmentally benign solution if the primary fuel source is renewable.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Emissions, costs, fuel intensity

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9 Oil Refineries Emissions: Source and Impact: A Study using AERMOD

Authors: Amir. AL-Haddad, Hisham. Ettouney, Samiya. Saqer

Abstract:

The main objectives of this paper are to measure pollutants concentrations in the oil refinery area in Kuwait over three periods during one year, obtain recent emission inventory for the three refineries of Kuwait, use AERMOD and the emission inventory to predict pollutants concentrations and distribution, compare model predictions against measured data, and perform numerical experiments to determine conditions at which emission rates and the resulting pollutant dispersion is below maximum allowable limits.

Keywords: Modeling, Emissions, Pollutants, ISCST3 model, Refinery

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8 Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

Authors: Bakare Babatunde Femi

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This paper presents an overview of these two pretreatment methods describing their benefits and laboratory scale reactors that simulate landfill conditions were constructed in order to compare emissions in terms of biogas production and leachate contamination between untreated Municipal Solid Waste and Mechanical Biological Pretreated waste. The findings of this study showed that Mechanical Biological pretreatment of waste reduces the emission level of waste and the benefit over the landfilling of untreated waste is significant.

Keywords: Emissions, MSW, thermal pretreatment, mechanical biological pretreatment

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7 Estimation of Forest Fire Emission in Thailand by Using Remote Sensing Information

Authors: A. Junpen, S. Garivait, S. Bonnet, A. Pongpullponsak

Abstract:

The forest fires in Thailand are annual occurrence which is the cause of air pollutions. This study intended to estimate the emission from forest fire during 2005-2009 using MODerateresolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, experimental data, and statistical data. The forest fire emission is estimated using equation established by Seiler and Crutzen in 1982. The spatial and temporal variation of forest fire emission is analyzed and displayed in the form of grid density map. From the satellite data analysis suggested between 2005 and 2009, the number of fire hotspots occurred 86,877 fire hotspots with a significant highest (more than 80% of fire hotspots) in the deciduous forest. The peak period of the forest fire is in January to May. The estimation on the emissions from forest fires during 2005 to 2009 indicated that the amount of CO, CO2, CH4, and N2O was about 3,133,845 tons, 47,610.337 tons, 204,905 tons, and 6,027 tons, respectively, or about 6,171,264 tons of CO2eq. They also emitted 256,132 tons of PM10. The year 2007 was found to be the year when the emissions were the largest. Annually, March is the period that has the maximum amount of forest fire emissions. The areas with high density of forest fire emission were the forests situated in the northern, the western, and the upper northeastern parts of the country.

Keywords: Emissions, forest fire, Remote sensing information

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6 Reduction of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Traffic

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Jiri Dvorak, Jaromir Mares, Hana Malachova

Abstract:

The value of emission factor was calculated in the older type of Diesel engine operating on an engine testing bench and then compared with the parameters monitored under similar conditions when the EnviroxTM additive was applied. It has been found out that the additive based on CeO2 nanoparticles reduces emission of NOx. The dependencies of NOx emissions on reduced torque, engine power and revolutions have been observed as well.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Air, Emissions, additive, emission factor, nitrogen oxides, cerium dioxide

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5 Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating at High Cooled EGR Rates

Authors: Sh. Khalilarya, S. Jafarmadar, H. Khatamnezhad, Gh. Javadirad, M. Pourfallah

Abstract:

One promising way to achieve low temperature combustion regime is the use of a large amount of cooled EGR. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on low temperature combustion process and emissions were investigated via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures in a DI diesel engine using high EGR rates. The results show when increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to reduced temperature combustion, soot emission after first increasing, is decreased beyond 40% EGR and get the lowest value at 58% EGR rate. Soot and NOx emissions are simultaneously decreased at advanced injection timing before 20.5 ºCA BTDC in conjunction with 58% cooled EGR rate in compared to baseline case.

Keywords: Combustion, Emissions, Diesel Engine, Low Temperature Combustion, High Cooled EGR Rates

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4 A Novel Methodology Proposed for Optimizing the Degree of Hybridization in Parallel HEVs using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: K. Varesi, A. Radan

Abstract:

In this paper, a new Genetic Algorithm (GA) based methodology is proposed to optimize the Degree of Hybridization (DOH) in a passenger parallel hybrid car. At first step, target parameters for the vehicle are decided and then using ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) software, the variation pattern of these target parameters, across the different DOHs, is extracted. At the next step, a suitable cost function is defined and is optimized using GA. In this paper, also a new technique has been proposed for deciding the number of battery modules for each DOH, which leads to a great improvement in the vehicle performance. The proposed methodology is so simple, fast and at the same time, so efficient.

Keywords: Emissions, Fuel Economy, Electric Motor, genetic algorithm (GA), Degree of Hybridization (DOH), Hybrid ElectricVehicle (HEV), Vehicle Performance

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3 On Unburned Carbon in Coal Ash from Various Combustion Units

Authors: L. Bartonová, D. Juchelková, Z. Klika, B. Cech

Abstract:

Work is focused to the study of unburned carbon in ash from coal (and wastes) combustion in 8 combustion tests at 3 fluidised-bed power station, at co-combustion of coal and wastes (also at fluidized bed) and at bench-scale unit simulating coal combustion in small domestic furnaces. The attention is paid to unburned carbon contents in bottom ashes and fly ashes at these 8 combustion tests and to morphology of unburned carbons. Specific surface area of coals, unburned carbons and ashes and the relation of specific surface area of unburned carbon and the content of volatile combustibles in coal were studied as well.

Keywords: Emissions, coal combustion, Toxic Elements, unburned carbon

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2 Electricity Power Planning: the Role of Wind Energy

Authors: Paula Ferreira, Madalena Araújo, M.E.J. O’Kelly

Abstract:

Combining energy efficiency with renewable energy sources constitutes a key strategy for a sustainable future. The wind power sector stands out as a fundamental element for the achievement of the European renewable objectives and Portugal is no exception to the increase of the wind energy for the electricity generation. This work proposes an optimization model for the long range electricity power planning in a system similar to the Portuguese one, where the expected impacts of the increasing installed wind power on the operating performance of thermal power plants are taken into account. The main results indicate that the increasing penetration of wind power in the electricity system will have significant effects on the combined cycle gas power plants operation and on the theoretically expected cost reduction and environmental gains. This research demonstrated the need to address the impact that energy sources with variable output may have, not only on the short-term operational planning, but especially on the medium to long range planning activities, in order to meet the strategic objectives for the energy sector.

Keywords: wind power, Emissions, Cost, electricity planning model

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1 Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Rice Bran Oil / Diesel Fuel Blend

Authors: B.K.Venkanna, C. Venkataramana Reddy, Swati B Wadawadagi

Abstract:

Triglycerides and their derivatives are considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels. Rice bran oil is used as diesel fuel. Highly viscous rice bran oil can be reduced by blending it with diesel fuel. The present research is aimed to investigate experimentally the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine, typically used in agricultural sector, over the entire load range when fuelled with rice bran oil and diesel fuel blends, RB10 (10% rice bran oil + 90% diesel fuel) to RB50. The performance, emission and combustion parameters of RB20 were found to be very close to neat diesel fuel (ND). The injector opening pressure (IOP) undoubtedly is of prime importance in diesel engine operation. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics with RB30 at enhanced IOPs are better than ND. Improved premixed heat release rate were noticed with RB30 when the IOP is enhanced.

Keywords: Performance, Emissions, rice bran oil, injector opening pressure

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