Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Ecology Related Publications

8 Analyzing the Changing Pattern of Nigerian Vegetation Zones and Its Ecological and Socio-Economic Implications Using Spot-Vegetation Sensor

Authors: B. L. Gadiga

Abstract:

This study assesses the major ecological zones in Nigeria with the view to understanding the spatial pattern of vegetation zones and the implications on conservation within the period of sixteen (16) years. Satellite images used for this study were acquired from the SPOT-VEGETATION between 1998 and 2013. The annual NDVI images selected for this study were derived from SPOT-4 sensor and were acquired within the same season (November) in order to reduce differences in spectral reflectance due to seasonal variations. The images were sliced into five classes based on literatures and knowledge of the area (i.e. <0.16 Non-Vegetated areas; 0.16-0.22 Sahel Savannah; 0.22-0.40 Sudan Savannah, 0.40-0.47 Guinea Savannah and >0.47 Forest Zone). Classification of the 1998 and 2013 images into forested and non forested areas showed that forested area decrease from 511,691 km2 in 1998 to 478,360 km2 in 2013. Differencing change detection method was performed on 1998 and 2013 NDVI images to identify areas of ecological concern. The result shows that areas undergoing vegetation degradation covers an area of 73,062 km2 while areas witnessing some form restoration cover an area of 86,315 km2. The result also shows that there is a weak correlation between rainfall and the vegetation zones. The non-vegetated areas have a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.0088, Sahel Savannah belt 0.1988, Sudan Savannah belt -0.3343, Guinea Savannah belt 0.0328 and Forest belt 0.2635. The low correlation can be associated with the encroachment of the Sudan Savannah belt into the forest belt of South-eastern part of the country as revealed by the image analysis. The degradation of the forest vegetation is therefore responsible for the serious erosion problems witnessed in the South-east. The study recommends constant monitoring of vegetation and strict enforcement of environmental laws in the country.

Keywords: Ecology, Vegetation, degradation, NDVI, SPOT-vegetation

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7 Automation of Web-Portal Construction Processes with SQL Server for the Black Sea Ecosystem Monitoring

Authors: Nino Topuria, Gia Surguladze, Ana Gavardashvili, Tsatsa Namchevadze

Abstract:

The present article discusses design and development of Information System for monitoring ecology within the Black Sea basin of Georgia. Sea parameters, river, estuary, vulnerable district, water sample, etc. were considered as the major parameters of the sea ecosystem. A conceptual schema has been developed for the Black Sea ecosystem based on object-role model. The experimental database for the Black Sea ecosystem has been constructed using Ms SQL Server, while the object-role model NORMA has been developed using graphical instrument Ms Visual Studio within the integrated environment of .NET Framework 4.5. Web portal has been designed based on Ms SharePoint Server. The server database connection with web-portal has been carried out by means of External List of Ms SharePoint Server Designer.

Keywords: Ecology, Database, Service-Oriented Architecture, Monitoring System, river, estuary, Black Sea, Web-Application, object-role modelling, SharePoint, automation of data processing

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6 A System Dynamic Based DSS for Ecological Urban Management in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Mona M. Salem, Khaled S. Al-Hagla, Hany M. Ayad

Abstract:

The concept of urban metabolism has increasingly been employed in a diverse range of disciplines as a mean to analyze and theorize the city. Urban ecology has a particular focus on the implications of applying the metabolism concept to the urban realm. This approach has been developed by a few researchers, though it has rarely if ever been used in policy development for city planning. The aim of this research is to use ecologically informed urban planning interventions to increase the sustainability of urban metabolism; with special focus on land stock as a most important city resource by developing a system dynamic based DSS. This model identifies two critical management strategy variables for the Strategic Urban Plan Alexandria SUP 2032. As a result, this comprehensive and precise quantitative approach is needed to monitor, measure, evaluate and observe dynamic urban changes working as a decision support system (DSS) for policy making.

Keywords: Management, Ecology, Metabolism, Urban development, System Dynamics, Scenarios, model, DSS, land resource, LULCC, Alexandria SUP 2032

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5 Morpho-Anatomical and Ecological Studies on Endemic of Fritillaria oranensis Pomel. from the Mounts of Tessala (Western Algeria)

Authors: A. Bouzid, R. Chadli

Abstract:

Fritillaria oranensis (Liliaceae) was described in 1874 by pomel from Algeria. Plant samples have been collected from the mount of Tessala (Sidi-Bel-Abbes). The morphological features of various organs of the plant are described in detail. In the morphological part of the study, features of various organs of the plants such as stem and leaf were determined and illustrated. Ecological studies provide information about the physical and chemical structure of soil types in Tessala Mountain. The aim of this original investigation is to put forth ecological and anatomical features of these species for the first time, but at the same time given detailed account of the morphological characteristics of the stem and leaf of Fritillaria oranensis.

Keywords: Ecology, Anatomy, Morphology, Liliaceae, Fritillaria oranensis Pomel

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4 Political Economy of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

Authors: Oluwatoyin D. Kolawole, Oarabile Mogobe, Lapologang Magole

Abstract:

Although many factors play a significant role in agricultural production and productivity, the importance of soil fertility cannot be underestimated. The extent to which small farmers are able to manage the fertility of their farmlands is crucial in agricultural development particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).  This paper assesses the nutrient status of selected farmers’ fields in relation to how government policy addresses the allocation of and access to agricultural inputs (e.g. chemical fertilizers) in a unique social-ecological environment of the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana. It also analyses small farmers and soil scientists’ perceptions about the political economy of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) in the area. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to elicit quantitative and qualitative information from 228 farmers and 9 soil researchers through the use of interview schedules and questionnaires, respectively. Knowledge validation workshops and focus group discussions (FGDs) were also used to collect qualitative data from farmers. Thirty-three composite soil samples were collected from 30 farmers’ plots in three farming communities of Makalamabedi, Nokaneng and Mohembo for laboratory analysis. While meeting points exist, farmers and scientists have divergent perspectives on soil fertility management. Laboratory analysis carried out shows that most soils in the wetland and the adjoining dry-land/upland surroundings are low in essential nutrients as well as in cation exchange capacity (CEC). Although results suggest the identification and use of appropriate inorganic fertilizers, the low CEC is an indication that holistic cultural practices, which are beyond mere chemical fertilizations, are critical and more desirable for improved soil health and sustainable livelihoods in the area. Farmers’ age (t= -0.728; p≤0.10); their perceptions about the political economy (t = -0.485; p≤0.01) of ISFM; and their preference for the use of local knowledge in soil fertility management (t = -10.254; p≤0.01) had a significant relationship with how they perceived their involvement in the implementation of ISFM.

Keywords: Ecology, Policy, soil fertility, Access, Botswana, small farmers, inputs, Okavango Delta, scientists

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3 Floristic Richness of the Tropical Coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal, a Treasure to be Conserved

Authors: Rao M. V., Joshi S. C., Balaji M.

Abstract:

Coastal zone combines terrestrial, marine and atmospheric factors and gives rise to unique landforms that play an important role in long-term sustainability of the hinterland and economy of maritime nations. World over, efforts have been put forth to understand plants of the seacoasts. In India also, plants of several geographical entities have been well documented, but works devoted to plant communities of the vast tropical coast of India and its States are still insufficient. Therefore, an inventory of plants flourishing in a stretch of ~450km of the Coastal Regulatory Zone I encompassing a total of 84 villages in 6 revenue Districts of northern Andhra Pradesh (15o42’06”N, 80o51’03”E to 19o05’51”N, 84o47’44”E) along Bay of Bengal was carried out. The study revealed presence of a total of 364 species belonging to 225 genera under 71 families. In addition to inventory, zonation pattern, ethnobotany, and certain interesting ecological facts are included.

Keywords: Ecology, Inventory, Ethnobotany, zonation, Tropical coast

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2 Analysis of Rubber Waste Utilization at Pandora Production Company Limited

Authors: S. Pechpoothong, M. Kopystecki

Abstract:

The eco-efficient use of “waste" makes sense from economic, social, and environmental perspectives. By efficiency diverting “waste" products back into useful and/or profitable inputs, industries and entire societies can reap the benefits of improved financial profit, decreased environmental degradation, and overall well-being of humanity. In this project, several material flows at Company Limited were investigated. Principles of "industrial ecology" were applied to improve the management of waste rubbers that are used in the jewelry manufacturing process. complete this project, a brief engineering analysis stream, and investigated eco-efficient principles for more efficient handling of the materials and wastes were conducted, and the result were used to propose implementation strategies.

Keywords: Ecology, Waste, Rubber

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1 The New Effective Biostimulator for Agroecological Engineering

Authors: Saniyam A. Ibragimova, Zhandos M. Basygarayev, Almagul R. Kerimkulova, E. A. Bukenova, Murat K. Gilmanov

Abstract:

New biostimulator from wheat seeds which by its chemical composition relates to fusicoccin is presented in this article. New biostimulator could be used as powerful hormonal substance that has ability to increase productivity and salt tolerance of agricultural plants. Also on the basis of biostimulator we have developed vegetative method for fast reproduction of perennial plants as desert plant - Tamarix gracilis.

Keywords: Ecology, salt tolerance, crop productivity, Biostimulator, fussicoccin

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