Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Durability Related Publications

27 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Durability, chloride attack, Corrosion Resistance, corrosion inhibitor, SIFCON, chloride environments, slurry infiltrated fiber concrete

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26 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen

Abstract:

Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: Durability, gas concentration, co-electrolysis, leaks, solid oxide electrolysis cells

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25 Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradable Properties of Bioplast-Spruce Green Wood Polymer Composites

Authors: A. Atli, K. Candelier, J. Alteyrac

Abstract:

Environmental and sustainability concerns push the industries to manufacture alternative materials having less environmental impact. The Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) produced by blending the biopolymers and natural fillers permit not only to tailor the desired properties of materials but also are the solution to meet the environmental and sustainability requirements. This work presents the elaboration and characterization of the fully green WPCs prepared by blending a biopolymer, BIOPLAST® GS 2189 and spruce sawdust used as filler with different amounts. Since both components are bio-based, the resulting material is entirely environmentally friendly. The mechanical, thermal, structural properties of these WPCs were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and impact tests, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Their water absorption properties and resistance to the termite and fungal attacks were determined in relation with different wood filler content. The tensile and flexural moduli of WPCs increased with increasing amount of wood fillers into the biopolymer, but WPCs became more brittle compared to the neat polymer. Incorporation of spruce sawdust modified the thermal properties of polymer: The degradation, cold crystallization, and melting temperatures shifted to higher temperatures when spruce sawdust was added into polymer. The termite, fungal and water absorption resistance of WPCs decreased with increasing wood amount in WPCs, but remained in durability class 1 (durable) concerning fungal resistance and quoted 1 (attempted attack) in visual rating regarding to the termites resistance except that the WPC with the highest wood content (30 wt%) rated 2 (slight attack) indicating a long term durability. All the results showed the possibility to elaborate the easy injectable composite materials with adjustable properties by incorporation of BIOPLAST® GS 2189 and spruce sawdust. Therefore, lightweight WPCs allow both to recycle wood industry byproducts and to produce a full ecologic material.

Keywords: Durability, Wood-Plastic Composites, Mechanical Properties, Biodegradability, Thermal Properties, structural properties, spectrophotometry, melt flow index

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24 Microstructure, Compressive Strength and Transport Properties of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes Containing Natural Pumice and Zeolite

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

Abstract:

Due to the difficult placement and vibration between reinforcements of reinforced concrete and the defects that it may cause, the use of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is becoming more widespread. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most widely used binder in the construction industry. However, the manufacture of this cement results in a significant amount of CO2 being released, which is detrimental to the environment. Thus, an alternative to reduce the cost of SCC is the use of more economical and environmental mineral additives in partial or total substitution of Portland cement. Our study is in this context and aims to develop SCCs both economic and ecological. Two natural pozzolans such as pumice and zeolite are chosen in this research. This research tries to answer questions including the microstructure of the two types of natural pozzolan and their influence on the mechanical properties as well as on the transport property of SCC. Based on the findings of this study, the studied zeolite is a clinoptilolite that presents higher pozzolan activity compared to pumice. However, the use of zeolite decreases the compressive strength of SCC composites. On the contrary, the compressive strength in SCC containing of pumice increases at both early and long term ages with a remarkable increase at long term. A correlation is obtained between the compressive strength with permeable pore and capillary absorption. Also, the results concerning compressive strength and transport property are well justified by evaporable and non-evaporable water content measurement. This paper shows that the substitution of Portland cement by 15% of pumice or 10% of zeolite in HSSCC is suitable in all aspects. 

Keywords: Durability, Transport, Concrete, Zeolite, pumice, SCC

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23 Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Attacks of Self-Consolidating Concrete: Effect Metakaolin and Various Cements Types

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Farhad Estakhr, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Faramaz Moodi

Abstract:

Due to their fluidity and simplicity of use, self-compacting concretes (SCCs) have undeniable advantages. In recent years, the role of metakaolin as a one of pozzolanic materials in concrete has been considered by researchers. It can modify various properties of concrete, due to high pozzolanic reactions and also makes a denser microstructure. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of three type of Portland cement and metakaolin on fresh state, compressive strength and sulfuric acid attacks in self- consolidating concrete at early age up to 90 days of curing in lime water. Six concrete mixtures were prepared with three types of different cement as Portland cement type II, Portland Slag Cement (PSC), Pozzolanic Portland Cement (PPC) and 15% substitution of metakaolin by every cement. The results show that the metakaolin admixture increases the viscosity and the demand amount of superplasticizer. According to the compressive strength results, the highest value of compressive strength was achieved for PSC and without any metakaolin at age of 90 days. Conversely, the lowest level of compressive strength at all ages of conservation was obtained for PPC and containing 15% metakaolin. According to this study, the total substitution of PSC and PPC by Portland cement type II is beneficial to the increasing in the chemical resistance of the SCC with respect to the sulfuric acid attack. On the other hand, this increase is more noticeable by the use of 15% of metakaolin. Therefore, it can be concluded that metakaolin has a positive effect on the chemical resistance of SCC containing of Portland cement type II, PSC, and PPC.

Keywords: Durability, compressive strength, metakaolin, SCC, cement type, sulfuric acid attacks

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22 Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Seung Woo Lee, Jun Hee Lee, Young Kyu Kim, Seong Jae Hong, Chamroeun Chhorn

Abstract:

Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving the long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of RCC. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factors in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to the testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of RCC without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate the air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found to be more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2% to 3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 and 300 μm (close to 250 μm, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of the AE in the mixture.

Keywords: Durability, RCCP, air spacing factor, surface scaling resistance test, freezing and thawing resistance test

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21 Mechanical Strengths of Self-Compacting Mortars Prepared with the Pozzolanic Cement in Aggressive Environments

Authors: M. Saidi, I. Djefour, F. Ait Medjber, A. Melouane, A. Gacem

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties and durability of self-compacting mortars prepared by substituting a part of cement up to a percentage of 30% pozzolan according to different Blaine specific surface area (SSB1=7000 cm2/g and SSB=9000 cm2/g)). Order to evaluate durability, mortars were subjected to chemical attacks in various aggressive environments, a solution of a mixture of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate (HNO3 + NH4NO3) and a magnesium sulfate salt solution (MgSO4)) with a concentration of 10%, for a period of one month. This study is complemented by a comparative study of the durability of mortars elaborated with sulphate resistant cement (SRC). The results show that these mortars develop long-term, mechanical and chemical resistance better than mortars based Portland cement with 5% gypsum (CEM 1) and SRC. We found that the mass losses are lowest in mortars elaborated with pozzolanic cement (30% substitution with SSB2) in both of chemical attack solutions (3.28% in the solution acid and 1.16% in the salt solution) and the compressive strength gains of 14.68% and 8.5% respectively in the two media. This is due to the action of pozzolan which fixes portlandite to form hydrated calcium silicate (CSH) from the hydration of tricalcic silicate (C3S).

Keywords: Durability, self-compacting mortar, pozzolanic cement, aggressive environments, mechanical strengths

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20 Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: M. Oliveira, M. Eckert

Abstract:

The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.

Keywords: Durability, recycled aggregate, Plastic Shrinkage Cracking; Wind Tunnel

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19 The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Nikol Žižková, Sarka Keprdova, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).

Keywords: Durability, secondary crystallization, cement-based composites

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18 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap

Abstract:

This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: Durability, High Performance Concrete, compressive strength, rice husk ash

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17 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sands and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performances of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at 10% and 20% replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at 20% replacement levels was effective in mitigating expansions.

Keywords: Durability, expansion, alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite

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16 The Feasibility of Using Milled Glass Wastes in Concrete to Resist Freezing-Thawing Action

Authors: Raed Abendeh, Mousa Bani Baker, Zaydoun Abu Salem, Heham Ahmad

Abstract:

The using of waste materials in the construction industry can reduce the dependence on the natural aggregates which are going at the end to deplete. The glass waste is generated in a huge amount which can make one of its disposals in concrete industry effective not only as a green solution but also as an advantage to enhance the performance of mechanical properties and durability of concrete. This article reports the performance of concrete specimens containing different percentages of milled glass waste as a partial replacement of cement (Powder), when they are subject to cycles of freezing and thawing. The tests were conducted on 75-mm cubes and 75 x 75 x 300-mm prisms. Compressive strength based on laboratory testing and non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test were performed during the action of freezing-thawing cycles (F/T). The results revealed that the incorporation of glass waste in concrete mixtures is not only feasible but also showed generally better strength and durability performance than control concrete mixture. It may be said that the recycling of waste glass in concrete mixes is not only a disposal way, but also it can be an exploitation in concrete industry.

Keywords: Durability, glass waste, freeze-thaw cycles, Nondestructive test

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15 Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Lung-Yu Sung, Andrew S. Lin, Huan-Jyun Ciou

Abstract:

Durability of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells was evaluated in both steady state and accelerated decay modes. Steady state mode was carried out at constant current of 800mA/cm2 for 2500 hours using air as cathode feed and pure hydrogen as anode feed. The degradation of the cell voltage was 0.015V after such 2500 hrs operation. The degradation rate was therefore calculated to be 6uV/hr. Continuously Vigorous fluctuation of the cell voltage, which was switched between OCV and 0.2V, was employed for the accelerated decay mode. No obvious change in performance of the MEA was observed after 10000 cycles of such operation.

Keywords: Durability, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, lifetime, membrane electrode assembly

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14 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: J. Hroudova, J. Zach, M. Sedlmajer, P. Rovnaníková

Abstract:

There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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13 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jana Kosikova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: Durability, Waste, solidification/stabilization

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12 Some Aspects of Study the Leaching and Acid Corrosion of Concrete

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Alena Sicakova

Abstract:

Although properly made concrete is inherently a durable material, there are many physical and chemical forces in the environment which can contribute to its deterioration. This paper deals with two aspects of concrete durability in chemical aggressive environment: degradation effect of particular aggressive exposure and role of particular mineral additives. Results of the study of leaching and acid corrosion processes in samples prepared with specific dosage of microsilica and zeolite are given in the paper.

Corrosion progress after 60-day exposition is manifested by increasing rate of both Ca and Si release, what is identified by XRF method. Kind and dosage of additions used in experiment was found to be helpful for stabilization of concrete microstructure.The lowest concentration of mean elements in leachates was observed for mixture V1 (microsilica only) unlike the V2 (microsilica + zeolite). It is surprising in the terms of recommendations of zeolite application for acid exposure. Using microsilica only seems to be more effective.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Sustainability, Leaching, acid corrosion

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11 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glas, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4%. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: Durability, Fibres, foamed concrete

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10 Modeling of Thermal Processes Associated to an Electric Arc

Authors: Allagui Hatem, Ghodbane Fathi

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to study the thermal effects of the electric arc on the breaker apparatus contacts for forecasting and improving the contact durability. We will propose a model which takes account of the main influence factors on the erosion contacts. This phenomenon is very complicated because the amount of ejected metal is not necessarily constituted by the whole melted metal bath but this depends on the balance of forces on the contact surface. Consequently, to calculate the metal ejection coefficient, we propose a method which consists in comparing the experimental results with the calculated ones. The proposed model estimates the mass lost by vaporization, by droplets ejection and by the extraction mechanism of liquid or solid metal. In the one-dimensional geometry, to calculate of the contact heating, we used Green’s function which expresses the point source and allows the transition to the surface source. However, for the two- dimensional model we used explicit and implicit numerical methods. The results are similar to those found by Wilson’s experiments.

Keywords: Durability, erosion, Contact, thermal effect, electric arc

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9 Durability of Concrete with Different Mineral Admixtures: A Review

Authors: N. Shafiq, M. F. Nuruddin, T. Ayub, S. U. Khan

Abstract:

Several review papers exist in literature related to the concrete containing mineral admixtures; however this paper reviews the durability characteristics of the concrete containing fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK) and rice husk ash (RHA). Durability related properties reviewed include permeability, resistance to sulfate attack, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), carbonation, chloride ion penetration, freezing and thawing, abrasion, fire, acid and efflorescence. From review of existing literature, it is found that permeability of concrete depends upon the content of alumina in mineral admixtures, i.e. higher the alumina content, lesser the permeability which results higher resistance to sulfate and chloride ion penetration. Highly reactive mineral admixtures prevent more ASR and reduce efflorescence. The carbonation increases with the mineral admixtures because higher water binder ratio and lesser content of portlandite in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction. Mineral admixtures require air entrainment except MK and RHA for better resistance to freezing and thawing.

Keywords: Durability, Permeability, carbonation, alkali silica reaction, mineral admixture

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8 Turning Thin-Walled Workpieces with Variable Depth of Cut

Authors: M. Sadilek, L. Petrkovska, J. Kratochvil

Abstract:

The article deals with the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of turning thin-walled workpieces. It proposes a new strategy for turning and it proposes new implementation of roughing cycles where a variable depth of cut is applied. Proposed roughing cycles are created in the CAD/CAM system. These roughing cycles are described in relation to their further use in practice.

The experimental research has focused on monitoring the durability of cutting tool and increases its tool life. It compares the turning where the standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied. In article are monitored tool wear during cutting with the sintered carbide cutting edge. The result verifies theoretical prerequisites of tool wear.

Keywords: Durability, Turning, Variable depth of cut, CAD-CAM system

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7 Influence of Compactive Efforts on Cement- Bagasse Ash Treatment of Expansive Black Cotton Soil

Authors: Moses, Osinubi, K. J.

Abstract:

A laboratory study on the influence of compactive effort on expansive black cotton specimens treated with up to 8% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) admixed with up to 8% bagasse ash (BA) by dry weight of soil and compacted using the energies of the standard Proctor (SP), West African Standard (WAS) or “intermediate” and modified Proctor (MP) were undertaken. The expansive black cotton soil was classified as A-7-6 (16) or CL using the American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), respectively. The 7day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of the natural soil for SP, WAS and MP compactive efforts are 286, 401 and 515kN/m2 respectively, while peak values of 1019, 1328 and 1420kN/m2 recorded at 8% OPC/ 6% BA, 8% OPC/ 2% BA and 6% OPC/ 4% BA treatments, respectively were less than the UCS value of 1710kN/m2 conventionally used as criterion for adequate cement stabilization. The soaked California bearing ratio (CBR) values of the OPC/BA stabilized soil increased with higher energy level from 2, 4 and 10% for the natural soil to Peak values of 55, 18 and 8% were recorded at 8% OPC/4% BA 8% OPC/2% BA and 8% OPC/4% BA, treatments when SP, WAS and MP compactive effort were used, respectively. The durability of specimens was determined by immersion in water. Soils treatment at 8% OPC/ 4% BA blend gave a value of 50% resistance to loss in strength value which is acceptable because of the harsh test condition of 7 days soaking period specimens were subjected instead of the 4 days soaking period that specified a minimum resistance to loss in strength of 80%. Finally An optimal blend of is 8% OPC/ 4% BA is recommended for treatment of expansive black cotton soil for use as a sub-base material.

Keywords: Durability, compaction, California bearing ratio, bagasse ash, ordinary Portland cement, Unconfined compressive strength

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6 Influence of Metakaolin on the Performance of Mortars and Concretes

Authors: M. Si-Ahmed, A. Belakrouf, S. Kenai

Abstract:

The use of additions in cement in manufacturing, mortar and concrete offers economic and ecological advantages. Cements with additions such as limestone, slag and natural pouzzolana are produced in cement factories in Algeria. Several studies analyzed the effect of these additions on the physical and mechanical properties as well as the durability of concrete. However, few studies were conducted on the effect of local metakaolin on mechanical properties and durability of concrete. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of mortar and concrete with local metakaolin. The preparation of the metakaolin was carried out by calcination of kaolin at a temperature of 850 °C for a period of 3 hours. The experimental results have shown that the rates of substitutions of 10 and 15% metakaolin increases the compressive strength and flexural strength at both early age and long term. The durability and the permeability were also improved by reducing the coefficient of sorptivity.

Keywords: Durability, compressive strength, metakaolin, calcination

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5 Influence of Different Mixing Ratios of Adhesives for Wood Bondline Quality

Authors: Jan Vanerek, Anna Benesova, Pavel Rovnanik

Abstract:

The research study was based on an evaluation of the ability of glued test samples to pass the criterion of sufficient bondline adhesion under the exposure conditions defined in EN 302- 1. Additionally, an infrared spectroscopic analysis of the evaluated adhesives (phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde PRF and melamine-ureaformaldehyde MUF) with different mix ratios was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of a faulty technological process.

Keywords: Durability, Adhesives, Timber, bondline

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4 Durability of LDPE Geomembrane within Sealing System of MSW (Landfill)

Authors: L. Menaa, A. Cherifi, K. Tigouirat, M. Choura

Abstract:

Analyse of locally manufactured Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) durability, used within lining systems at bottom of Municipal Solid Waste (landfill), is done in the present work. For this end, short and middle time creep behavior under tension of the analyzed material is carried out. The locally manufactured material is tested and compared to the European one (LDPE-CE). Both materials was tested in 03 various mediums: ambient and two aggressive (salty water and foam water), using three specimens in each case. A testing campaign is carried out using an especially designed and achieved testing bench. Moreover, characterisation tests were carried out to evaluate the medium effect on the mechanical properties of the tested material (LDPE). Furthermore, experimental results have been used to establish a law regression which can be used to predict creep behaviour of the analyzed material. As a result, the analyzed LDPE material has showed a good stability in different ambient and aggressive mediums; as well, locally manufactured LDPE seems more flexible, compared with the European one. This makes it more useful to the desired application.

Keywords: Durability, Solid Waste, LDPE membrane, aggressive mediums

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3 Effect of Incorporating Silica Fume in Fly Ash Geopolymers

Authors: Suresh Thokchom, Somnath Ghosh, Debabrata Dutta

Abstract:

This paper presents results of an experimental study performed to investigate effect of incorporating silica fume on physico-mechanical properties and durability of resulting fly ash geopolymers. Geopolymer specimens were prepared by activating fly ash incorporated with additional silica fume in the range of 2.5% to 5%, with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution having Na2O content of 8%. For studying durability, 10% magnesium sulphate solution was used to immerse the specimens up to a period of 15 weeks during which visual observation, weight changes and strength changes were monitored regularly. Addition of silica fume lowers performance of geopolymer pastes. However, in mortars, addition of silica fume significantly enhanced physico-mechanical properties and durability.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, Geopolymer, silica fume, compressive strength, sorptivity, apparent porosity

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2 An Innovative Wireless Sensor Network Protocol Implementation using a Hybrid FPGA Technology

Authors: Tuan DANG, Danielle Reichel, Antoine Druilhe

Abstract:

Traditional development of wireless sensor network mote is generally based on SoC1 platform. Such method of development faces three main drawbacks: lack of flexibility in terms of development due to low resource and rigid architecture of SoC; low capability of evolution and portability versus performance if specific micro-controller architecture features are used; and the rapid obsolescence of micro-controller comparing to the long lifetime of power plants or any industrial installations. To overcome these drawbacks, we have explored a new approach of development of wireless sensor network mote using a hybrid FPGA technology. The application of such approach is illustrated through the implementation of an innovative wireless sensor network protocol called OCARI.

Keywords: Durability, Embedded system, Wireless Sensor Network, SoC, Flexibility, Hybrid FPGA, Mote, OCARI protocol

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1 Determining the Workability of the New Metallurgical Materials

Authors: Robert CEP, Josef Brychta, Adam Janasek, Ondrej Dupala

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to experimentally discover the workability coefficient of the Inconel 718 material by using a slide turning machining. Two different types of cutting inserts, one made of carbide and the other one made of ceramic, are being used. The purpose is to compare measured results and recommend the appropriate materials and cutting parameters for a machining of the Inconel 718. Furthermore, the durability of inserts with the chosen wear criterion is being compared for different cutting speeds. Machinability of these materials is a crucial characteristic as it allows us to shorten the technological cycle time and increase the machining productivity. And this is of great importance from an economic point of view.

Keywords: Durability, workability, inconel 718, Turning Machining

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